A Christmas Carol is a fairly straightforward allegory in which each of the main passages has a fixed symbolic meaning. The three middle chapters, or staves, concern visitations to the central character, Scooge, by spirit-guides, along with each of their tales: the Ghost of Christmas Past represents memory; the Ghost of Christmas Present represents charity, empathy, and the Christmas spirit; and the reaper-like Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come represents the fear of death. Scrooge, with his now infamous ‘Bah Humbug’ attitude, embodies the opposite of all that we feel Christmas spirit should be - greed, selfishness, indifference, and a lack of consideration for one's fellow man. With A Christmas Carol, Dickens hopes to illustrate how self-serving, insensitive people can be converted into charitable, caring, and socially conscious members of society. Warmth, generosity, and overall goodwill, overcome Scrooge's bitter apathy as he encounters and learns from his memory, the ability to empathize, and his fear of death.