A User's Guide to Engineering

Paperback | September 1, 2017

byJames N. Jensen

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With an informal and engaging writing style, A User’s Guide to Engineering is an exploration of the world of engineering for future and current engineers.

This title is part of Prentice Hall’s ESource series. ESource allows professors to select the content appropriate for their freshman/first-year engineering course. Professors can adopt the published manuals as is or use ESource’s website www.prenhall.com/esource  to view and select the chapters they need, in the sequence they want. The option to add their own material or copyrighted material from other publishers also exists.

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With an informal and engaging writing style, A User’s Guide to Engineering is an exploration of the world of engineering for future and current engineers. This title is part of Prentice Hall’s ESource series. ESource allows professors to select the content appropriate for their freshman/first-year engineering course. Professors can ...

James Jensen is currently Associate Professor of Civil Engineering and Director of the Environmental Science Program at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Dr. Jensen received his B.S. in Engineering and Applied Sciences from the California Institute of Technology in 1980. He received an MSPH in 1983 and Ph.D. in 1988 from the...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:375 pages, 8.75 × 6.35 × 0.68 inPublished:September 1, 2017Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0136080545

ISBN - 13:9780136080541

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Extra Content

Table of Contents

0 Introduction

 

Welcome to Engineering

How to Use This Book

Engineering Case Studies

Acknowledgments           

 

 

Part I: Exploring Engineering

 

Chapter 1: Introduction to Exploring Engineering

 

1.1  Introduction           

1.2  Welcome to Engineering

1.3  How to Discover Engineering

1.4  The Grand Challenges

1.5  Engineering Education: What You Should Expect

      1.4.1 Eaton’s first rule: “ ... make practical applications of all the sciences ...”

      1.4.2 Eaton’s second rule: “... take the place of the teacher ... [in] exercises.”

      1.4.3 Eaton’s third rule: “... attend to but one branch of learning at the same time...”

1.4.4 Eaton’s fourth rule: “Let the amusements and recreation of students be of a scientific character.”

1.4.5 Eaton’s fifth rule: “Let every student daily criticize those whose exercise he has attended ...”

1.6  Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

 

Chapter 2: What is Engineering?

 

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Defining Engineering

2.3 Engineering as an Applied Discipline

            2.3.1 Knowledge generation versus knowledge implementation

            2.3.2 The role of engineering

2.4 Engineering As Creative Problem Solving

            2.4.1 Solving problems

            2.4.2 Standard approaches to solving problems

            2.4.3 Creative approaches to solving problems

2.5 Engineering as Constrained Optimization

            2.5.1 Constraints

            2.5.2 Feasibility

2.6 Engineering as Helping Others

2.7 Engineers as Communicators

2.8 Engineering as a Profession

2.9 What Engineering is NOT

2.10 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

 

Chapter 3: Engineering Careers

 

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Engineering Jobs

            3.2.1 Availability of jobs

            3.2.2 Introduction to engineer¿ing jobs

            3.2.3 Engineers in industry

            3.2.4 Engineers in service

            3.2.5 Engineers in government

            3.2.6 Other engineering jobs

            3.2.7 Engineering education as a route to other fields

3.3 Job Satisfaction in Engineering

            3.3.1 What does “job satisfaction” mean to you?

            3.3.2 Engineering salaries

3.4 Future of Engineering Employment

3.5 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

 

Chapter 4: Engineering Disciplines

 

4.1 Introduction

4.2 How Many Engineering Disciplines Exist?

4.3 Chemical Engineering

            4.3.1 Technical areas

            4.3.2 Applications

            4.3.3 Curriculum

4.4 Civil Engineering

            4.3.1 Technical areas

            4.3.2 Applications

            4.3.3 Curriculum

4.5 Electrical Engineering

            4.5.1 Technical areas

            4.5.2 Applications

            4.5.3 Curriculum

4.6 Industrial Engineering

            4.6.1 Technical areas

            4.6.2 Applications

            4.6.3 Curriculum

4.7 Mechanical Engineering

            4.7.1 Technical areas

            4.7.2 Applications

            4.7.3 Curriculum

4.8 Major Engineering Subdisciplines

            4.8.1 Introduction

            4.8.2 Materials engineering

            4.8.3 Aeronautical, astronautical, and aerospace engineering

            4.8.4 Environmental engineering

            4.8.5 Agricultural engineering

            4.8.6 Biomedical engineering

4.9 How Do New Engineering Disciplines Evolve?

            4.9.1 Introduction

            4.9.2 Creation of new field by budding

            4.9.3 Creation of new field by merging

4.10 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

 

 

Part II: Engineering Ethics

 

 

Chapter 5: Introduction to Engineering Ethics

 

5.1 Introduction

5.2 What is Ethics?

5.3 Importance of Engineering Ethics

5.4 Approaches to Engineering Ethics

5.5 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

 

Chapter 6: Professional Ethics

 

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Academic Ethics

6.3 NSPE Code of Ethics

            6.3.1 Introduction

            6.3.2 Fundamental Canons

6.4 Other Engineering Code of Ethics

            6.4.1 Additional Principles

            6.4.2 Discrimination and Harassment

            6.4.3 Continuing Education on Ethics

            6.4.4 Ethics and Engineering Education

6.5 Examples of Engineering Ethics

            6.5.1 Not Reporting Violations

            6.5.2 Whistle-Blowing

6.6 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

 

Chapter 7: Beyond Professional Ethics

 

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Appropriate Technology

            7.2.1 Introduction

            7.2.2 Example

            7.2.3 Appropriate Technology and Engineering

7.3 Environmental Ethics, Sustainability, and Industrial Ecology

            7.3.1 Introduction

            7.3.2 Sustainability

            7.3.3 Industrial Ecology

7.4 Accessibility

7.5 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

 

 

Part III: Engineering Profession

 

 

Chapter 8: Professional Life of Engineers

 

8.1 Introduction

8.2 What is a Profession?

8.3 Engineering as a Profession

            8.3.1 Introduction

            8.3.2 Judgment and Discretion in Engineering

            8.3.3 Admission to the Profession

            8.3.4 Self Policing

8.4 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

 

Chapter 9: Professional Life

 

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Professional Benefits

            9.2.1 Introduction

            9.2.2 Job Satisfaction

            9.2.3 Variety of Career Oppertunities

            9.2.4 Challenging Work

            9.2.5 Intellectual Development

            9.2.6 Potential to Benefit Society

            9.2.7 Financial Security

            9.2.8 Prestige

            9.2.9 Professional Environment

            9.2.10 Technological and Scientific Discovery

            9.2.11 Creative Thinking

9.3 Professional Obligations

            9.3.1 Introduction

            9.3.2 Continuing Education

            9.3.3 Giving Back to the Profession

9.4 Practical Issues

9.5 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

 

Chapter 10: Professional Registration

 

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Why Become a Professional Engineer?

10.3 The Registration Process

            10.3.1 Overview

            10.3.2 The Accredited Degree

            10.3.3 Fundamentals of Engineering Examination

            10.3.4 Experience

            10.3.5 Principles and Practice Examination

10.4 After Registration

10.5 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

 

Part IV: Engineering Problem Solving

 

 

 

Chapter 11: Introduction to Engineering Problem Solving and the Scientific Method

 

11.1 Introduction

            11.1.1 Engineering problems

            11.1.2 The art and science of engineering problem-solving

            11.1.3 Engineering solution methods

11.2 Approaches to Engineering Problem Solving

            11.2.1 Introduction

            11.2.2 Scientific method

            11.2.3 Engineering analysis method

            11.2.4 Engineering design method

            11.2.5 Need for innovation

11.3 Introduction to the Scientific Method

            11.3.1 Introduction

            11.3.2. Scientific problem-solving process

11.4 Problem Definition

            11.4.1 Introduction

            11.4.2 Inclusive and exclusive definitions

11.4.3 Disadvantages of definitions that are not specific

11.5 Formulate a Hypothesis

            11.5.1 Introduction

11.5.2 Hypotheses as testable statements

11.6 Test the Hypothesis

            11.6.1 Testing a hypothesis by experiment

            11.6.2 Testing a hypothesis by analysis

11.7 Drawing Conclusions from Hypothesis Testing

            11.7.1 Rejecting a hypothesis

            11.7.2 Conditionally accepting a hypothesis

11.8 Examples of the Use of the Scientific Method

11.9 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

 

 

 

Chapter 12: Engineering Analysis Method

 

12.1 Introduction

            12.1.1 Introduction to the engineering analysis method

            12.1.2 Solving analysis problems

12.2 Gathering Data

            12.2.1 Introduction

            12.2.2 Data collection

12.3 Selecting the Analysis Method

            12.3.1 Introduction

            12.3.2 Selection of physical laws

            12.3.3 Translation into mathematical expressions

12.4 Estimate the Solution

            12.4.1 Introduction

            12.4.2 Example

12.5 Solving the Problem

            12.5.1 Solving mathematical expressions by isolating the unknown

12.5.2 “Golden Rule” of expression manipulation

            12.5.3 Manipulating inequalities

            12.5.4 Hints for manipulating equations

12.6 Check the Results

            12.6.1 Introduction

12.6.2 Use logic to avoid Aphysical answers

            12.6.3 Using logic to check expression manipulation

            12.6.4 Using estimation to check solutions

            12.6.5 Using units to check solutions

12.7 Units

            12.7.1 Introduction

            12.7.2 Dimensional analysis

            12.7.3 Units and functions

            12.7.4 Units conversion

12.8 An Example of the Engineering Analysis Method

12.9 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

Chapter 13: Engineering Design Method

 

13.1 Introduction

            13.1.1 Introduction to engineering design

            13.1.2 Solving design problems

13.2 Generating Multiple Solutions

            13.2.1 Introduction

            13.2.2 Brainstorming

            13.2.3 Methods for generating new ideas

13.3 Analyzing Alternatives and Selecting a Solution

            13.3.1 Analyzing alternatives

            13.3.2 Selecting a solution

13.4 Implementing the Solution

13.5 Evaluating the Solution

13.6 Design Example

13.7 Design Parameters

            13.7.1 Introduction

            13.7.2 Example

            13.7.3 Uses of design parameters

13.8 Innovations in Design

            13.8.1 Introduction

            13.8.2 Need for innovation

            13.8.3 Design innovation by concurrent engineering

            13.8.4 Design innovation by reengineering

            13.8.5 Design innovation by reverse engineering

            13.8.6 How to innovate

            13.8.7 Translating failure into success through innovation

13.9 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

 

Part V: Engineering Problem-Solving Tools

 

 

Chapter 14: Introduction to Engineering Problem-Solving Tools and Using Data

 

14.1 Introduction

            14.1.1 Engineering problem-solving tools

            14.1.2 Using data

14.2 Accuracy and Precision

            14.2.1 Introduction

            14.2.2 Accuracy

            14.2.3 Precision

14.3 Rounding and Significant Digits

            14.3.1 Introduction

            14.3.2 Counting the number of significant digits

            14.3.3 Exceptions to the rule: numbers with no decimal point and exact numbers

            14.3.4 Reporting measurements

            14.3.5 Rounding and calculations

14.4 Measures of Central Tendency

            14.4.1 Introduction

            14.4.2 Arithmetic mean

            14.4.3 Median

            14.4.4 Mode

            14.4.5 Geometric mean

            14.4.6 Harmonic mean

            14.4.7 Quadratic mean

           

14.5 Measures of Variability

            14.5.1 Introduction

            14.5.2 Variance

            14.5.3 Standard deviation

            14.5.4 Relative standard deviation

            14.5.5 Variability and data collection in engineering

14.6 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

 

 

 

Chapter 15: Engineering Models

 

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Why Use Models?

15.3 Types of Models

            15.3.1 Introduction

            15.3.2 Conceptual models

            15.3.3 Physical models

            15.3.4 Mathematical models

            15.3.5 Other kinds of models

15.4 Using Models and Data to Answer Engineering Questions

            15.4.1 Interplay of models and data

            15.4.2 Potential errors

            15.4.3 Model fits

            15.4.4 Using calibrated models

            15.4.5 Determining model fit

            15.4.6 Are engineering models real?

15.5 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

Chapter 16: Computing Tools in Engineering

 

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Computer Hardware

            16.2.1 Computer types

            16.2.2 Microprocessors

            16.2.3 Memory and mass storage

16.2.4 Input, output, and communication devices

16.3 General Computer Software

            16.3.1 Introduction

            16.3.2 Operating systems

            16.3.3 Communications software

            16.3.4 Spreadsheet software

16.4 Engineering and Science Specific Software

            16.4.1 Introduction

            16.4.2 Programming software

            16.4.3 Trends in programming software

            16.4.4 Symbolic math software

            16.4.5 Computer-aided design

            16.4.6 Discipline-specific software

16.5 The Internet

            16.5.1 Introduction

            16.5.2 Structure of the Internet

            16.5.3 Uses of the Internet

16.6 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

 

 

Chapter 17: Feasibility and Project Management

 

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Technical Feasibility

17.3 Engineering Economics

            17.3.1 Costs of engineering projects

            17.3.2 Time value of money

            17.3.3 Calculating the present and future value of money

            17.3.4 Uniform series

            17.3.5 Engineering economics calculations

17.4 Economic Feasibility

            17.4.1 Introduction

            17.4.2 Comparing alternatives

            17.4.3 Example

17.5 Fiscal Feasibility

            17.5.1 Introduction

            17.5.2 Bonds

            17.5.3 Example

17.6 Social, Political, and Environmental Feasibility

17.7 Project Management

            17.7.1 Introduction

            17.7.2 Project planning

            17.7.3 Project scheduling

            17.7.4 Critical path method

17.8 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

 

Part VI: Technical Communications

 

 

Chapter 18: Introduction to Technical Communication

 

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Role of Technical Communication in Engineering

            18.2.1 Technical communication as a professional skill

            18.2.2 Technical communication and employment

18.3 Misconceptions About Technical Communication

            18.3.1 Misconception #1: Technical communication is inherently boring

            18.3.2 Misconception #2: Engineering communication is passive

            18.3.3 Misconception #3: Technical communication is best left to non-engineering specialists

            18.3.4 Misconception #4: Good technical communicators are born, not made

18.4 Critical First Steps

            18.4.1 Presentation goals

            18.4.2 Target audience

            18.4.3 Constraints

18.5 Organization

            18.5.1 Outlines

            18.5.2 Signposting

18.6 Using Tables and Figures to Present Data

            18.6.1 Use of tables and figures

            18.6.2 Common characteristics of tables and figures

18.7 Tables

18.8 Figures

            18.8.1 Scatter plots

            18.8.2 Bar charts

            18.8.3 Pie charts

18.9 Creativity in Technical Presentations

            18.9.1 Creative conciseness

            18.9.2 Thinking visually

18.10 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

 

 

Chapter 19: Written Technical Communications

 

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Overall Organization of Technical Documents

            19.2.1 Introduction

            19.2.2 General organization

            19.2.3 Abstract

            19.2.4 Introduction

            19.2.5 Methods

            19.2.6 Results and discussion

            19.2.7 Conclusions and recommendations

            19.2.8 References

            19.2.9 Signposting in technical writing

19.3 Organizing Parts of Technical Documents

            19.3.1 Paragraph organization

            19.3.2 Sentence organization

            19.3.3 Word choice

19.4 Grammar and Spelling

            19.4.1 Subject-verb match

            19.4.2 Voice

            19.4.3 Tense

            19.4.4 Pronouns

            19.4.5 Adjectives and adverbs

            19.4.6 Capitalization and punctuation

            19.4.7 Spelling

            19.4.8 Citation

            19.4.9 Other problem areas

            19.4.10 Proofreading

19.5 Types of Engineering Documents

            19.5.1 Introduction

            19.5.2 Reports

            19.5.3 Letters

            19.5.4 Memorandums

            19.5.5 Email

19.6 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

Chapter 20: Oral Technical Communications

 

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Before the Talk: Organization

20.3 Before the Talk: Designing Visual Aids

            20.3.1 Number of visual aids

            20.3.2 Types of visual aids

            20.3.3 Content of visual aids: word slides

            20.3.4 Content of visual aids: data slides

            20.3.5 Special notes about computer-based presentations

 

20.4 Before the Talk: Preparing to Present

            20.4.1 Practicing oral presentations

            20.4.2 Memory aids

20.5 During the Talk

            20.5.1 Pre-talk activities

            20.5.2 Group presentations

            20.5.3 Nervousness

            20.5.4 What to say

            20.5.5 How to say it

20.6 After the Talk

20.7 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas

Problems

 

 

Appendix A: Review of Physical Relationships  
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Definitions            
A.2.1 Kinematic parameters            
A.2.2 Fundamental forces            
A.2.3 Other forces            
A.2.4 Energy, work, and power
A.3 Decomposition by Vectors            
A.3.1 Position vectors            
A.3.2 Other vectors
A.4 Conservation Laws
A.5 Gradient-driven Processes