This book offers a completely new approach to the measurement of academic library effectiveness. Based on a significant empirical investigation, it contradicts established practices such as the measurement of outputs as indicators of effectiveness and the tendency to focus the evaluation of library effectiveness on the success of isolated activities. The book also explores in detail the fundamental inadequacy of library-based bibliographic instruction and information-seeking skills development. It argues that a student learns in order to become information literate and does not become information literate in order to learn. In so doing, it challenges much of the accepted wisdom in libraries and information technology.