Adaptive Learning And The Human Condition by Jeffrey C. LevyAdaptive Learning And The Human Condition by Jeffrey C. Levy

Adaptive Learning And The Human Condition

byJeffrey C. Levy

Hardcover | October 4, 2012

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Adaptive Learning and the Human Condition presents the basic principles of classical (Pavlovian) and instrumental (Skinnerian) conditioning in a more coherent and expansive manner than is the case in other textbooks. Learning is defined as an adaptive process through which individuals acquire the ability to predict, and where possible, control the environment. This overarching definition enables integration of traditional Pavlovian and Skinnerian principles and terminology and makes explicit why treatment of the learning process is essentially limited to these two historical research paradigms. Pavlov developed a methodology for studying animals under circumstances where they could predict, but not control, sequences of environmental events. Skinner studied animals under circumstances where their behavior had an effect upon environmental events. Observational learning and symbolic communication (i.e., spoken or written language) are incorporated as indirect learning processes through which individuals can acquire the ability to predict or control. This treatment creates a perspective within which it is possible to consider the fundamental nature of the learning process in understanding the human condition and in addressing significant individual and social concerns.

Examples of applications and issues not included in similar textbooks include:

  • The role of classical and instrumental conditioning in language acquisition
  • The administration of rewards and punishers in Baumrind¿s parental styles as related to Kohlberg¿s stages of moral development
  • Stone-Age hunter-gatherer and technologically-advanced cultures: How did we get from there to here?
  • Self-control and self-actualization

While covering traditional technical and theoretical issues, the book is written in a clear, engaging style. The narrative builds across chapters, culminating in the treatment of applications and societal concerns of import and interest to students and faculty alike. Upon completing this book, readers should be able to: explain the significance of human condition through adaptive learning; present the basic principles of classical and instrumental conditioning; and understand the significance of scientific research

Jeffrey C. Levy¿s professional career at Seton Hall University may be divided into three stages, BC, DC, and AC (before, during, and after his 24-year term as chair of the Department of Psychology).  Frequently recognized for teaching excellence, he received the Deans Advisory Council¿s Outstanding Teacher Award for the College of Arts...
Title:Adaptive Learning And The Human ConditionFormat:HardcoverDimensions:288 pages, 9.5 × 7.65 × 0.75 inPublished:October 4, 2012Publisher:Taylor and FrancisLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:020520547X

ISBN - 13:9780205205479


Table of Contents

Part 1:  A Science of Adaptive Learning

Chapter 1:  Science, Psychology, and Adaptive Learning 

Chapter 2:  Adaptive Learning Research Methods   

Part 2:  Predictive Learning

Chapter 3:  Predictive Learning: Basic Principles and Phenomena 

Chapter 4:  Predictive Learning: Basic Variables and Theoretical Issues 

Chapter 5:  Predictive Learning: Applications        

Part 3:  Control Learning

Chapter 6:  Control Learning: Basic Principles and Phenomena    

Chapter 7:  Control Learning: Basic Variables and Theoretical Issues   

Chapter 8:  Control Learning: Applications  

Chapter 9:  Schedules of Reward and Maintenance of Learned Behavior

Part 4:  The Human Condition

Chapter 10:  Personality, Socialization, and Culture 

Chapter 11:  Becoming Human and Transforming the Human Condition

Chapter 12: Becoming Human through Indirect Social Learning 

Chapter 13:  Individual and Cultural Self-Actualization 

Chapter 14:  Self-Actualization through Self-Control  




Part 1:  A Science of Adaptive Learning

Chapter 1.  Science, Psychology, and Adaptive Learning 

The Human Condition      Explanation and Empiricism      

The Scientific Method     

Early History of Psychology      

Psychology Today    

Scientific Explanation in Psychology    

Where Does Psychology Look for Explanations?   

Definitions of Learning 

Direct and Indirect Learning  


Key Terms


Chapter 2.  Adaptive Learning Research Methods 

Internal and External Validity     

Non-Experimental Research Methods   

Experimental Research Methods   

Adaptive Learning Research Methods and External Validity    


Key Terms


Part 2.  Predictive Learning

Chapter 3.  Predictive Learning: Basic Principles and Phenomena  

Pavlov’s classical conditioning paradigm  

Measurement Procedures   

Basic predictive learning phenomena   

Predictive learning schema with excitatory and inhibitory stimuli      


Key Terms


Chapter 4.  Predictive Learning: Basic Variables and Theoretical Issues  

Variables influencing predictive learning  

Theoretical Issues 


Key Terms


Chapter 5.  Predictive Learning: Applications     

Basic and applied science     

Direct classical conditioning of emotions      

Indirect classical conditioning of emotions     

Desensitization and sensitization procedures    

Classical conditioning of word meaning  

Classical conditioning of attitudes    

Classical conditioning of drug tolerance     


Key Terms


Part 3.  Control Learning

Chapter 6.  Control Learning: Basic Principles and Phenomena  

Thorndike and Skinner         

Apparatuses used to study control learning     

Skinner’s contingency schema     

Adaptive learning overview of predictive and control learning  

Learned and unlearned appetitive and aversive stimuli  

Discriminative stimuli and warning stimuli     

Stimulus-response chains     

Basic control learning phenomena

Species specific characteristics and control learning

Other basic control learning phenomena    


Key Terms


Chapter 7.  Control Learning: Basic Variables and Theoretical Issues  

Variables influencing control learning    

Theoretical issues 


Key Terms


Chapter 8:  Control Learning: Applications  

Speech and Language (verbal symbolic behavior) 


Treating behavioral problems with non-verbal individuals   

Treating behavioral problems with verbal individuals 

Empirically validated therapeutic techniques

Using technology to facilitate control learning

Relapse prevention 


Key Terms


Chapter 9.  Schedules of Reward and Maintenance of Learned Behavior  

Skinnerian methodology

Skinner’s schema of intermittent schedules of reinforcement

Why do ratio schedules produce higher response rates than interval schedules?

Maintenance of learned behavior

Differential reinforcement schedules as alternatives to punishment

Extinction as an alternative to punishment

Non-contingent reinforcement as an alternative to punishment


Key Terms


Part 4.  The Human Condition

Chapter 10.  Personality, Socialization, and Culture  

Multiple schedules, personality, and culture

Stimulus control, baseball, and the human condition

Measuring stimulus control in the laboratory

Determinants of stimulus control test patterns

The peak shift and Spence’s model of discrimination learning

Attention theory and discrimination learning


Key Terms


Chapter 11.  Becoming Human and Transforming the Human Condition   

Concept learning

Learning to learn

Basic research in problem-solving

The general problem-solving process

Tools, technology, and the human condition

The phonetic alphabet and Arabic numbering system


Key Terms


Chapter 12.  Becoming Human through Indirect Social Learning  

Observational learning

Speech and language

Preparing for school and the 3 Rs


Key Terms


Chapter 13.  Individual and Cultural Self-Actualization  

The Nukak’s physiological needs

The Nukak’s shelter and safety needs

The Nukak’s love and interpersonal needs

The Nukak’s esteem needs

The Nukak’s self-actualization needs

Our physiological needs

Our shelter and safety needs

Our love and interpersonal needs

Developmental tasks and stages for the Nukak and us

Our esteem needs

Our self-actualization needs

Bridges, globalization, and the human condition


Key Terms


Chapter 14.  Self-Actualization through Self-Control  

Concurrent schedules and the matching law

Self-control – magnitude and delay of reinforcement

Matching, impulsiveness, and adaptive learning

Determinism and Freedom

Lightning, sharks, and human predators

Will Power and Self-Control

Self-Control as Problem Solving

Improving the human condition through humanistic ecology


Key Terms

Editorial Reviews

¿The text has a focus on adaptive learning which not only underscores the relationship between operant and classical learning but highlights our individual ability to operate on and control our own environments and, thus, our own learning. Students should find this premise enormously interesting and relatable¿ - Margherita Rossi, Broome Community College ¿I am interested! The approach appears to be unique in its focus on the adaptive function of learning, something I always emphasize in my course. I may be especially interested in this text for my graduate course in Learning, as my students are PsyD candidates. The strengths are the evolutionary emphasis and the writing style. I really liked his careful discussion of the Tolman experiment because I think it would help students understand the importance of each aspect of the design.¿ - Cora Sherburne, IUP ¿I'm intrigued by the Levy's approach to "modernizing" the teaching of basic learning processes. I have been teaching this course for a very long time and little has been done, successfully, to deviate from the traditional approach. Levy's attempt to bring respondent and operant learning together rather than to clarify their distinctions might just work.¿ - Kris Biondolillo, Arkansas State University ¿It takes a different approach to the coverage of behavior theory in psychology by including topics that are typically not found in most textbooks (e.g., emphasis on adaptation to the environment, social learning and culture, human applications of principles of learning).¿ - Peter Butera, Niagara University ¿The goal of the text is to bridge the gap between science and practice. My reading of the contents suggests that it goes a long way toward meeting its goal. The author seems to have arranged the text by introducing a problem with basic-science findings and then showing their relevance to applied concerns.¿  - Daniel Cerutti, California State University East Bay