Advanced Materials for Integrated Optical Waveguides by Xingcun Colin TongAdvanced Materials for Integrated Optical Waveguides by Xingcun Colin Tong

Advanced Materials for Integrated Optical Waveguides

byXingcun Colin Tong

Hardcover | October 30, 2013

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This book provides a comprehensive introduction to integrated optical waveguides for information technology and data communications. Integrated coverage ranges from advanced materials, fabrication, and characterization techniques to guidelines for design and simulation. A concluding chapter offers perspectives on likely future trends and challenges. The dramatic scaling down of feature sizes has driven exponential improvements in semiconductor productivity and performance in the past several decades. However, with the potential of gigascale integration, size reduction is approaching a physical limitation due to the negative impact on resistance and inductance of metal interconnects with current copper-trace based technology. Integrated optics provides a potentially lower-cost, higher performance alternative to electronics in optical communication systems. Optical interconnects, in which light can be generated, guided, modulated, amplified, and detected, can provide greater bandwidth, lower power consumption, decreased interconnect delays, resistance to electromagnetic interference, and reduced crosstalk when integrated into standard electronic circuits. Integrated waveguide optics represents a truly multidisciplinary field of science and engineering, with continued growth requiring new developments in modeling, further advances in materials science, and innovations in integration platforms. In addition, the processing and fabrication of these new devices must be optimized in conjunction with the development of accurate and precise characterization and testing methods. Students and professionals in materials science and engineering will find Advanced Materials for Integrated Optical Waveguides to be an invaluable reference for meeting these research and development goals.

Title:Advanced Materials for Integrated Optical WaveguidesFormat:HardcoverDimensions:552 pagesPublished:October 30, 2013Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3319015494

ISBN - 13:9783319015491

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Table of Contents

Preface
Abbreviations

1 Fundamentals and design guides for optical waveguides
Abstract
1.1 State of the art and challenges
1.1.1 Rationale and challenges of optical interconnects to electronic circuits
1.1.2 Evolution of optical interconnects
1.1.2.1 Fiber-based optical interconnects
1.1.2.2 Optical interconnects overlaid on PCB
1.1.2.3 Inter-chip interconnects with board-embedded waveguides
1.1.2.4 Free-space optoelectronic interconnects
1.1.2.5 Optical interconnects to electronic chips
1.1.3 Waveguide components and integration technologies
1.1.3.1 Light sources
1.1.3.2 Characteristics of VCSELs
1.1.3.3 Photodetectors
1.1.3.4 Electronics
1.1.3.5 Optical waveguides for short-range optical interconnects
1.1.3.6 Micro-optical coupling elements
1.1.3.7 Integration and packaging
1.2 Fundamental theory and design methodology
1.2.1 Classification of optical waveguides
1.2.2 Fundament waveguide theory
1.2.3 Optical waveguide design methodology           
1.3 Waveguide materials selection and fabrication techniques
1.4 Environmental compliance of optical waveguide materials
1.5 Summary
Reference

2 Characterization methodologies of optical waveguides
Abstract
2.1 Geometrical inspection
2.2 Reflective index measurements
2.2.1 Reflectometry and ellipsometry
2.2.2 Surface plasmon resonance
2.2.3 Prism coupling
2.2.4 Propagation-mode near-field technique
2.2.5 Refracted near-field technique
2.2.6 M-line spectroscopy
2.3 Coupling techniques
2.3.1 Prism coupling method
2.3.2 End-coupling method
2.3.3 Lunch and tapered-coupling method
2.3.4 Grating coupling method
2.4 Optical loss
2.4.1 Propagation losses by radiation
2.4.2 Propagation losses by absorption and mode conversion
2.4.3 Propagation losses by diffusion
2.4.4 Measurement of propagation losses
2.5 Optoelectronic characterization
2.5.1 Optical power meters
2.5.2 Optical time-domain reflectometers
2.5.3 Spectrum analyzers
2.5.4 Eye diagrams
2.6 Electro-optic effects
2.7 Thermo-optic effects
2.8 Acousto-optic effects
2.9 Non-linear optic effects
2.9.1 Self-phase modulation
2.9.2 Cross-phase modulation
2.9.3 Four-wave mixing
2.9.4 Stimulated Raman Scattering
2.9.5 Stimulated brillouin scattering
2.10 Reliability evaluation
2.10.1 Failure modes and mechanisms
2.10.2 Reliability qualifications
Reference

3 Optoelectronic devices integrated with optical waveguides     
Abstract
3.1 Optoelectronic theory and demonstration
3.2 Light emission devices
3.2.1 Light emitting diodes
3.2.2 Lasers
3.3 Optical modulators and drives
3.4 Optical detectors
3.4.1 Photoconductors
3.4.2 Photodiodes
3.4.3 Photodetectors
3.4.3.1 Hetero-interface photodetectors
3.4.3.2 Travelling-wave photodetectors
3.4.3.3 Resonant-cavity photodetectors
3.4.3.4 Phototransistors
3.5 Optical receivers
3.5.1 Transimpedance amplifiers
3.5.2 Clocked sense amplifier and the receiver of minimal change
3.6 Optical pathways
3.6.1 Free-space approaches
3.6.2 Guided wave approaches
3.6.2.1 POF ribbons
3.6.2.2 Imaging fiber bundles
3.6.2.3 On-chip rigid waveguides
3.6.3 Reconfigurable optical pathways
3.6.4 Guided wave versus free space optics        
3.7 Optoelectronic device hybridization and integration
3.7.1 Bonding techniques
3.7.2 Monolithic integration
3.7.3 Silicon based light emission
3.7.4 Multifunctional device       
3.8 Nanomaterials for optoelectronic devices
Reference

 4 Optical fibers
Abstract
4.1 Historical perspective
4.2 Fiber optical principles
4.2.1 Fiber modes
4.2.2 Dispersive properties
4.2.3 Type of optical fibers
4.3 Fiber materials
4.3.1 Glasses
4.3.2 Plastic optical fibers
4.3.3 Photonic crystal fibers
4.3.4 Nano-fibers
4.4 Fiber fabrication
4.4.1 Purifying silica
4.4.2 Drawing the fiber
4.4.3 Vapor deposition techniques
4.4.4 Joining fibers
4.5 Optical fiber cables
4.5.1 Cabling environments
4.5.2 Fiber coating
4.5.3 Basic cable construction
4.5.4 Indoor cables
4.5.5 Air blown fiber
4.5.6 Outdoor cables
4.5.7 Undersea cables
4.6 Summary
Reference

5 Semiconductor waveguides
Abstract
5.1 Fundamental theory
5.1.1 Crystal structure
5.1.2 Energy band structure
5.1.3 III-V compound semiconductors
5.1.4 Quantum structure
5.1.5 Superlattice heterostructure          
5.2 Semiconductor materials and fabrication process for waveguides
5.2.1 Silicon waveguides
5.2.2 Gallium arsenide waveguides         
5.2.3 InAs quantum dots                              
5.3 Quantum-well technology
5.3.1 Characterization of quantum well
5.3.2 Quantum well intermixing
5.3.3 Micromachining    
5.4 Doped semiconductor waveguides
5.5 Semiconductor nanomaterials for waveguides
5.6 Summary
Reference 

6 Silicon-on-insulator waveguides
Abstract
6.1 Silicon photonics      
6.2 Silicon-on-insulator materials
6.2.1 Silicon-on-silica
6.2.2 Silicon-on-sapphire
6.2.3 Silicon-on-nitride
6.2.4 Other perspective materials
6.3 Silicon-on-insulator technology
6.3.1 Ion implantation and damage recovery
6.3.2 Dopant diffusion in bulk silicon
6.4 Silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures
6.4.1 Large single mode waveguides
6.4.2 Strip nano-waveguides
6.5 Fabrication techniques of SOI waveguides
6.5.1 Wafer fabrication
6.5.2 Waveguide fabrication                       
6.6 Thallium-doped SOI rib waveguides
6.7 Indium-doped SOI rib waveguides
6.8 SOI waveguide applications
6.8.1 Type of SOI waveguides
6.8.2 Low-loss SOI waveguides
6.8.3 Linear applications
6.8.4 Nonlinear applications
6.9 Summary
Reference 

7 Glass waveguides
Abstract
7.1 Glass structure and composition
7.2 Silica glass waveguides
7.2.1 Material processing technology
7.2.2 Refractive index profiling of planar waveguides
7.2.3 Silica waveguide devices
7.3 Silicon oxynitride waveguides
7.3.1 Material processing technology
7.3.2 SiON waveguide design and fabrication
7.3.3 SiON waveguide devices
7.4 Ion-exchanged glass waveguides
7.4.1 The ion-exchange techniques
7.4.2 Optical property of ion-exchanged waveguides
7.4.3 Ion-exchange systems in glass waveguides
7.4.4 Applications of ion-exchanged glass waveguides
7.5 Sol-gel glass waveguides
7.6 Laser-written waveguides
7.7 Glass waveguide lasers
7.8 Summary
Reference

8 Electro-optic waveguides
Abstract
8.1 Physical effects in electro-optic waveguides
8.2 Electro-optic materials and modulators
8.2.1 Electro-optic materials in photonics
8.2.2 Electro-optic modulation in waveguides
8.2.3 Alternative electro-optic materials
8.3 Lithium niobate waveguides
8.3.1 Lithium niobate crystal
8.3.2 fabrication process of lithium niobate waveguides
8.3.3 Erbium-doped lithium niobate waveguides
8.4 Lithium tantalite waveguides
8.5 Barium titanate waveguides
8.6 Electro-optic polymer materials and formed waveguides
8.6.1 Electro-optic polymer materials                     
8.6.2 Electro-optic polymer waveguides
8.7 Liquid crystal electro-optic waveguides
8.8 Strained silicon as an electro-optic material
8.9 Summary
Reference 

9 Polymer based optical waveguides
Abstract
9.1 Rationale of polymers used for optical waveguides
9.2 Polymeric waveguide materials
9.2.1 Current perspectives
9.2.2 Materials characterization and performance requirement
9.2.3 Conventional optical polymers
9.2.4 Advanced optical polymers
9.3 Fabrication process of polymer waveguides
9.3.1 Photoresist-based patterning
9.3.2 Direct lithographic patterning
9.3.3 Soft lithography
9.3.4 Electron beam bombardment
9.3.5 Injection molding
9.3.6 UV writing
9.3.7 Dispensed polymer waveguides
9.3.8 Doping of polymers to create waveguide devices
9.4 Polymer based optical components and integrated optics
9.4.1 Switches
9.4.2 Variable optical attenuators and tunable filters
9.4.3 Polarization controllers and modulators
9.4.4 Lasers and amplifiers
9.4.5 Detectors
9.4.6 Optical interconnects for computing systems
9.4.7 Planar optical connects for wavelength division multiplexing telecommunication systems
9.4.8 Planar optical waveguides for sensors
9.4.9 Integrated planar lightwave circuits
9.5 Summary
Reference 

10 Hollow waveguides
Abstract
10.1 State of art and perspectives
10.2 Hollow waveguide design and materials selection
10.2.1 Design principle
10.2.2 Materials selection and structure design
10.3 OmniGuide hollow Bragg fibers
10.4 Metal/dielectric coated hollow waveguides
10.5 Hollow glass waveguides
10.6 Chalcogenide glass hollow Bragg fibers
10.6.1 Germanium selenide glass
10.6.2 High refractive index chalcogenide glasses
10.6.3 Silver-Arsenic-Selenide glasses
10.6.4 Chalcogenide glass HBF preform fabrication and drawing
10.7 Liquid core waveguides
10.8 Applications of hollow waveguides
10.8.1 Hollow waveguides for optical PCB technology
10.8.2 Hollow waveguides for medical applications
10.8.3 Prospective telecommunication applications
10.8.4 Hollow waveguides as gas cells
10.8.5 Applications of hollow waveguides for remote sensing
10.8.6 Industrial Applications
10.9 Summary
Reference 

11 Metamaterial optical waveguides
Abstract
11.1 Historical perspective
11.2 Fabrication techniques of optical metamaterials
11.2.1 2D metamaterial structures
11.2.2 3D metamaterials
11.2.3 Thin metal film deposition for fabrication of metamaterials
11.3 Metamaterial waveguiding principle
11.4 Modes of metamaterial waveguide structures
11.5 Metamaterial modulators
11.5.1 Free-space fishnet metamaterial modulator
11.5.2 Integrated fishnet metamaterial modulator
11.6 Superlens
11.6.1 Superlensing in the near field
11.6.2 Superlenses projecting far-field images
11.6.3 Hyperlens as an optical turbine
11.7 Metamaterial sensors
11.7.1 Biosensors
11.7.2 Thin-film sensors
11.7.3 Wireless strain sensors
11.8 Future prospects|
11.9 Summary
Reference 

12 Perspectives and future trends
Abstract
12.1 Optical waveguide devices and materials
12.1.1 Terahertz band
12.1.2 Near-infrared range
12.1.3 Visible and ultraviolet ranges
12.1.4 Optical interconnects
12.2 Advances of micro-optics and nanophotonics
12.2.1 Silicon photonics
12.2.2 Nanoplasmonics
12.2.3 Photonic crystals and metamaterials for micro-optics and nanophotonics
12.2.4 Terahertz radiation and its applications
12.2.5 Nanophotonics and quantum information processing
12.3 Trends in applications
12.3.1 Optical communication networks
12.3.2 Optical memory and information processing
12.3.3 Displays
12.3.4 Laser processing and optical measurement
12.3.5 Medical technology in the optical industry
12.4 Summary
References

Index