American Constitutionalism: Powers, Rights, and Liberties

Paperback | September 1, 2014

byHoward Gilman, Mark A. Graber, Keith E. Whittington

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Constitutionalism in the United States is not determined solely by decisions made by the Supreme Court. Moving beyond traditional casebooks, renowned scholars Howard Gillman, Mark A. Graber, and Keith E. Whittington take a refreshingly innovative approach in American Constitutionalism bypresenting the material in a historical organization instead of the typical issues-based one. A single-volume edition of the authors' acclaimed two-volume text, this book is ideal for courses that cover the structures of government and civil rights and liberties in one semester or for two-semestercourses that are organized historically.

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Constitutionalism in the United States is not determined solely by decisions made by the Supreme Court. Moving beyond traditional casebooks, renowned scholars Howard Gillman, Mark A. Graber, and Keith E. Whittington take a refreshingly innovative approach in American Constitutionalism bypresenting the material in a historical organizat...

Howard Gillman is Provost and Executive Vice Chancellor and Professor of Political Science, History, and Law at the University of California, Irvine. Mark A. Graber is Professor of Law and Government at the University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law. Keith E. Whittington is William Nelson Cromwell Professor of Politics and...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:1088 pages, 10 × 8 × 0.68 inPublished:September 1, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

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ISBN - 10:0199343381

ISBN - 13:9780199343386

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Table of Contents

Topical OutlineTables, Figures, and ImagesPrefacePART 1. THEMES1. INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONALISMI. What is a Constitution?II. Constitutional PurposesIII. Constitutional Interpretation and Decision MakingIV. Constitutional AuthorityV. Constitutional ChangeVI. Constitutional Politics and LawPART 2. DEVELOPMENT2. THE COLONIAL ERA: BEFORE 1776I. IntroductionII. FoundationsA. SourcesB. PrinciplesC. ScopeIII. Judicial Power and Constitutional AuthorityWilliam Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of EnglandMassachusetts Assembly MemorialJohn Dickinson, Letters from a Farmer in PennsylvaniaIV. Powers of the National GovernmentV. Separation of PowersVI. Individual RightsA. PropertyB. ReligionWilliam Blackstone, Of Offences Against God and ReligionJohn Locke, A Letter Concerning TolerationRoger Williams, The Bloudy TenentC. GunsD. Personal Freedom and Public MoralityVII. Democratic RightsA. Free SpeechThe Zenger TrialB. VotingC. CitizenshipVIII. EqualityA. Equality Under LawB. RaceSomerset v. StewartC. GenderD. Native AmericansIX. Criminal JusticeA. Due Process and Habeas CorpusB. Search and SeizureEntick v. CarringtonC. InterrogationsD. Juries and LawyersE. Punishments3. THE FOUNDING ERA: 1776-1791I. IntroductionII. FoundationsA. SourcesThe Ratification Debates--The Pennsylvania Ratification Debates--The Address and Reasons of Dissent of the Minority of the Convention of Pennsylvania to their Constituents--Alexander Hamilton, The Federalist, No. 84--Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, CorrespondenceB. PrinciplesThomas Jefferson, Declaration of IndependenceJames Madison, The Federalist No. 10C. ScopeIII. Judicial Power and Constitutional AuthorityRobert Yates, "Brutus"Alexander Hamilton, The Federalist No. 78IV. Powers of the National GovernmentArticles of ConfederationThe Virginia PlanThe New Jersey PlanArticle I, Section 8 of the Constitution of the United StatesV. FederalismDebate in the Constitutional ConventionVI. Separation of PowersDebate in the Constitutional ConventionThe Federalist No. 51, 70, and 71"Centinel" Letter No. 1VII. Individual RightsA. PropertyB. ReligionThe Virginia Debate over Religious Assessments--A Bill Establishing a Provision for Teachers of the Christian Religion--James Madison, Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments--An Act for Establishing Religious FreedomHouse Debate over Conscientious ObjectorsC. GunsD. Personal Freedom and Public MoralityVIII. Democratic RightsA. Free SpeechB. VotingJohn Adams and Benjamin Franklin on Universal Male Suffrage--John Adams, Letter to James Sullivan--Benjamin Franklin, Queries and Remarks Respecting Alterations in the Constitution of PennsylvaniaC. CitizenshipIX. EqualityA. Equality Under LawB. RaceCommonwealth v. JennisonThomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of VirginiaC. GenderJohn Adams and Abigail Adams, Correspondence on Women's RightsD. Native AmericansX. Criminal JusticeA. Due Process and Habeas CorpusB. Search and SeizureC. InterrogationsD. Juries and LawyersE. PunishmentsBenjamin Rush, On Punishing Murder by Death4. THE EARLY NATIONAL ERA: 1791-1828I. IntroductionII. FoundationsA. SourcesCalder v. BullB. PrinciplesC. ScopeIII. Judicial Power and Constitutional AuthorityMarbury v. MadisonThomas Jefferson on DepartmentalismMartin v. Hunter's LesseeIV. Powers of the National GovernmentDebate on the Bank of the United States--House Debate on the Bank--Thomas Jefferson, Opinion on the Constitutionality of the Bill for Establishing a National Bank--Alexander Hamilton, Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States--McCulloch v. Maryland--Spencer Roane and John Marshall on McCulloch v. MarylandGibbons v. OgdenHouse Report on Internal ImprovementsJames Monroe, Views of the President of the United States on the Subject of Internal ImprovementsV. FederalismChisholm v. GeorgiaVirginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798VI. Separation of PowersHouse Debate on Removal of Executive OfficersVII. Individual RightsA. PropertyFletcher v. PeckB. ReligionThomas Jefferson, Letter to the Danbury BaptistsC. GunsBliss v. CommonwealthD. Personal Freedom and Public MoralityVIII. Democratic RightsA. Free SpeechDebate over the Sedition Act--The Sedition Act of 1789--The Report of a Select Committee on the Petitions Praying for a Repeal of the Alien and Sedition Laws--James Madison, Virginia Report of 1799B. VotingMassachusetts Debates Property QualificationsC. CitizenshipIX. EqualityA. Equality Under LawHolden v. JamesB. RaceCongressional Debate over the Missouri CompromiseC. GenderD. Native AmericansX. Criminal JusticeA. Due Process and Habeas CorpusB. Search and SeizureMayo v. WilsonC. InterrogationsD. Juries and LawyersUnited States v. CallenderE. PunishmentsJames v. Commonwealth5. THE JACKSONIAN ERA: 1829-1860I. IntroductionII. FoundationsA. SourcesB. PrinciplesC. ScopeBarron v. BaltimoreIII. Judicial Power and Constitutional AuthorityDebate in the Ohio Constitutional ConventionLuther v. BordenIV. Powers of the National GovernmentAndrew Jackson, Bank Veto MessagePrigg v. PennsylvaniaDred Scott v. SandfordAbraham Lincoln, Speech on Slavery in the TerritoriesV. FederalismCooley v. Board of WardensJohn C. Calhoun, Fort Hill AddressVI. Separation of PowersThe Debate over the Removal of the Deposits--Andrew Jackson, Paper on the Removal of the Deposits--Henry Clay, Speech on the Removal of the Deposits--Andrew Jackson, Protest of the Censure ResolutionHouse Debate on the Veto PowerVII. Individual RightsA. PropertyProprietors of the Charles River Bridge v. Proprietors of the Warren BridgeWynehamer v. PeopleB. ReligionC. GunsD. Personal Freedom and Public MoralityVIII. Democratic RightsA. Free SpeechCongressional Debates on Incendiary Publications in the Mail--Report from the Select Committee on the Circulation of Incendiary Publications--Report of the Minority of the Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads on the President's MessageB. VotingC. CitizenshipIX. EqualityA. Equality Under LawB. RaceDred Scott v. SandfordRoberts v. City of BostonC. GenderElizabeth Cady Stanton, Keynote Address, Seneca Falls ConventionD. Native AmericansX. Criminal JusticeA. Due Process and Habeas CorpusThe Booth Cases--In re Booth--Ableman v. BoothB. Search and SeizureC. InterrogationsD. Juries and LawyersE. Punishments6. CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION: 1861-1876I. IntroductionII. FoundationsA. SourcesDebates over the Thirteenth AmendmentDebates over the Fourteenth AmendmentB. PrinciplesC. ScopeSlaughter-House CasesIII. Judicial Power and Constitutional AuthorityEx parte McCardleIV. Powers of the National GovernmentHepburn v. GriswoldLegal Tender CasesSenate Debate over the Civil Rights Act of 1866V. FederalismSouth Carolina Ordinance of SecessionJeremiah Black, Opinion on the Power of the President in Executing the LawsAbraham Lincoln, First Inaugural AddressTexas v. WhiteVI. Separation of PowersAbraham Lincoln, Emancipation ProclamationBenjamin Curtis, Executive PowerThe Prize CasesVII. Individual RightsA. PropertyB. ReligionC. GunsD. Personal Freedom and Public MoralityVIII. Democratic RightsA. Free SpeechThe Trial of Clement VallandighamB. VotingC. CitizenshipIX. EqualityA. Equality Under LawThomas Cooley, A Treatise of the Constitutional Limitations which Rest upon the Legislative Power of the States of the American UnionB. RaceCongressional Debates Over Second Freedmen's Bureau ActC. GenderThe Senate Debates Women's SuffrageD. Native AmericansX. Criminal JusticeA. Due Process and Habeas CorpusEx parte MerrymanEdward Bates, Opinion on the Suspension of the Privilege of the Writ of Habeas CorpusEx parte MilliganB. Search and SeizureC. InterrogationsD. Juries and LawyersE. Punishments7. THE REPUBLICAN ERA: 1877-1932I. IntroductionII. FoundationsA. SourcesCongressional Debate over ProhibitionB. PrinciplesC. ScopeBalzac v. Porto RicoCivil Rights CasesIII. Judicial Power and Constitutional AuthorityTheodore Roosevelt, A Charter of DemocracyWilliam Howard Taft, Veto of Arizona StatehoodIV. Powers of the National GovernmentCongressional Debate over LynchingSenate Debate on the Sherman Anti-Trust ActUnited States v. E.C. Knight CompanyHammer v. DagenhartMissouri v. HollandV. FederalismWabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway Company v. IllinoisMunn v. State of IllinoisVI. Separation of PowersMyers v. United StatesPresidents on Presidential Power--Theodore Roosevelt, An Autobiography--William Howard Taft, Our Chief Magistrate and His PowersVII. Individual RightsA. PropertyPennsylvania Coal Co. v. MahonIn re JacobsLochner v. New YorkMuller v. OregonB. ReligionReynolds v. United StatesC. GunsD. Personal Freedom and Public MoralityMeyer v. NebraskaBuck v. BellVIII. Democratic RightsA. Free SpeechSchenck v. United StatesWhitney v. CaliforniaNear v. MinnesotaB. VotingC. CitizenshipIX. EqualityA. Equality Under LawB. RacePlessy v. FergusonJohn B. Knox, Address to the Alabama Constitutional ConventionC. GenderDebates over the Blanket AmendmentD. Native AmericansX. Criminal JusticeA. Due Process and Habeas CorpusB. Search and SeizureWeeks v. United StatesPeople v. DeforeOlmstead v. United StatesC. InterrogationsD. Juries and LawyersPowell v. AlabamaE. Punishments8. THE NEW DEAL/GREAT SOCIETY ERA: 1933-1968I. IntroductionII. FoundationsA. SourcesB. PrinciplesUnited States v. Carolene Products Co.C. ScopeDuncan v. LouisianaShelly v. KraemerIII. Judicial Power and Constitutional AuthorityFranklin D. Roosevelt, Undelivered Speech on the Gold-Clause CasesFranklin D. Roosevelt, Fireside Chat on Court-Packing PlanSenate Judiciary Committee Report on President Roosevelt's Court-Packing PlanThe Southern ManifestoDwight Eisenhower, Address to the Nation on the Introduction of Troops in Little RockCooper v. AaronBaker v. CarrIV. Powers of the National GovernmentSchechter Poultry Corp. v. United StatesNational Labor Relations Board v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp.Wickard v. FilburnCongressional Debate over the Civil Rights Act of 1964Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United StatesV. FederalismVI. Separation of PowersYoungstown Sheet and Tube v. SawyerUnited States v. Curtiss-Wright Export CorporationVII. Individual RightsA. PropertyHome Building and Loan Association v. BlaisdellWest Coast Hotel Co. v. ParrishWilliamson v. Lee Optical, Inc.B. ReligionEngel v. VitaleC. GunsD. Personal Freedom and Public MoralityGriswold v. ConnecticutVIII. Democratic RightsA. Free SpeechWest Virginia State Board of Education v. BarnetteDennis v. United StatesNew York Times Co. v. SullivanBrandenburg v. OhioB. VotingCongressional Reports on the Voting Rights Act of 1965Katzenbach v. MorganReynolds v. SimsCitizenshipIX. EqualityA. Equality Under LawB. RaceKorematsu v. United StatesCivil Rights Advocates Debate StrategyW. E. B. Du Bois, Does the Negro Need Separate Schools?Chas. H. Thompson, Court Action the Only Reasonable Alternative to Remedy Immediate Abuses of the Negro Separate SchoolBrown v. Board of Education of Topeka (Brown I)Green v. County School Board of New Kent CountyC. GenderD. Native AmericansX. Criminal JusticeA. Due Process and Habeas CorpusB. Search and SeizureMapp v. OhioC. InterrogationsMiranda v. ArizonaD. Juries and LawyersGideon v. WainwrightE. Punishments9. LIBERALISM DIVIDED: 1969-1980I. IntroductionII. FoundationsA. SourcesB. PrinciplesC. ScopeMoose Lodge No. 107 v. IrvisIII. Judicial Power and Constitutional AuthorityIV. Powers of the National GovernmentV. FederalismVI. Separation of PowersLeonard C. Meeker, Memorandum on the Legality of the United States Participation in the Defense of VietnamJ. William Fulbright, Congress and Foreign PolicyThe War Powers Act of 1973Richard Nixon, War Powers Act Veto MessageUnited States v. United States District Court [the "Keith Case"]United States v. NixonVII. Individual RightsA. PropertyB. ReligionWisconsin v. YoderC. GunsD. Personal Freedom and Public MoralityRoe v. WadeDebate over the Human Life AmendmentVIII. Democratic RightsA. Free SpeechNew York Times Co. v. United StatesBuckley v. ValeoB. VotingCongressional Debate on the Voting Rights Act of 1970Richardson v. RamirezC. CitizenshipIX. EqualityA. Equality Under LawSan Antonio Independent School District v. RodriguezB. RaceSwann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of EducationExecutive and Legislative Attacks on Busing--Richard Nixon, Special Message to the Congress on Equal Educational Opportunities and School Busing--Humber Humphrey, Senate Retreats from Equal Opportunity--Regents of the University of California v. BakkeWashington v. DavisC. GenderDebate over the Equal Rights AmendmentRuth Bader Ginsburg and Brenda Feigen Fasteau, Sex Bias in the U.S. CodePhyllis Schlafly, A Short History of E.R.A.Frontiero v. RichardsonD. Native AmericansIX. Criminal JusticeA. Due Process and Habeas CorpusIn re WinshipB. Search and SeizureC. InterrogationsHarris v. New YorkD. Juries and LawyersE. PunishmentsGregg v. GeorgiaPART 3. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES10. THE REAGAN ERA: 1981-1993I. IntroductionII. FoundationsA. SourcesB. PrinciplesOffice of Legal Policy, Guidelines on Constitutional LitigationScopeIII. Judicial Power and Constitutional AuthorityWilliam H. Rehnquist, "The Notion of a Living Constitution"William J. Brennan, "The Constitution of the United States: Contemporary Ratification"Senate Judicial Committee Hearings on the Nomination of Robert BorkIV. Powers of the National GovernmentSouth Dakota v. DoleV. FederalismGarcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit AuthorityVI. Separation of PowersImmigration and Naturalization Service v. ChadhaMorrison v. OlsonVII. Individual RightsA. PropertyLucas v. South Carolina Coastal CouncilB. ReligionLee v. WeismanEmployment Division v. SmithHouse Committee on the Judiciary, Report on the Religious Freedom Restoration ActC. GunsD. Personal Freedom and Public MoralityPlanned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. CaseyBowers v. HardwickVIII. Democratic RightsA. Free SpeechTexas v. JohnsonDoe v. University of MichiganA. VotingSenate Committee on the Judiciary, Senate Report on the Voting Rights Act Amendments of 1982Shaw v. RenoCitizenshipPlyler v. DoeIX. EqualityA. Equality Under LawB. RaceCity of Richmond v. J. A. Croson Co.C. GenderJohnson v. Transportation Agency, Santa Clara CountyD. Native AmericansX. Criminal JusticeA. Due Process and Habeas CorpusHerrera v. CollinsB. Search and SeizureUnited States v. LeonC. InterrogationsD. Juries and LawyersBatson v. KentuckyE. PunishmentsMcCleskey v. Kemp11. THE CONTEMPORARY ERA: 1995-PRESENTI. IntroductionII. FoundationsA. SourcesB. PrinciplesC. ScopeBoumediene v. BushIII. Judicial Power and Constitutional AuthorityCity of Boerne v. FloresThe Nomination of Samuel Alito to the U.S. Supreme CourtIV. Powers of the National GovernmentUnited States v. LopezNational Federation of Independent Business v. SebeliusV. FederalismPrintz v. United StatesVI. Separation of PowersWalter Dellinger, "Presidential Authority to Decline to Execute Unconstitutional Statutes"John Yoo, The President's Constitutional Authority to Conduct Military OperationsMemoranda on Standards of Conduct of Interrogation ["Torture Memos"]Caroline D. Krass, Memorandum Opinion on the Authority to Use Military Force in LibyaVII. Individual RightsA. PropertyKelo v. City of New LondonB. ReligionC. GunsDistrict of Columbia v. HellerD. Personal Freedom and Public MoralityLawrence v. TexasThe Defense of Marriage Act--House Committee on the Judiciary, Report on the Defense of Marriage Act--Dissenting Views on H.R. 3396--Eric Holder, "Letter from the Attorney General to Congress on Litigation Involving the Defense of Marriage Act"VIII. Democratic RightsA. Free SpeechCitizens United v. Federal Election CommissionB. VotingBush v. GoreShelby County v. HolderC. CitizenshipIX. EqualityA. Equality Under LawB. RaceGrutter v. BollingerC. GenderUnited States v. VirginiaD. Native AmericansX. Criminal JusticeA. Due Process and Habeas CorpusB. Search and SeizureC. InterrogationsDickerson v. United StatesD. Juries and LawyersE. PunishmentsF. Infamous Crimes and Criminals: The War Against TerrorismThe USA Patriot ActHamdi v. RumsfeldHouse Hearings on Disclosure of NSA Intelligence GatheringAPPENDICES:Constitution of the United States of AmericaResearching and Reading Government DocumentsChronological Table of Presidents, Congress, and the Supreme CourtGlossaryIndexCases