American Foreign Policy and the Challenges of World Leadership: Power, Principle, and the…

Paperback | December 23, 2013

byLoch K. Johnson

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In American Foreign Policy and the Challenges of World Leadership: Power, Principle, and the Constitution, preeminent scholar and renowned advisor on national security Loch K. Johnson offers students an insider's portrait of U.S. foreign policy that explores its underlying and drivingconstitutional principles. Featuring an engaging and accessible writing style, this unique book focuses on the fundamentals of foreign policy - its theory, historical evolution, institutions, and instruments - and offers an in-depth look at the tools that the U.S. uses to defend and advance itsinterests abroad, including diplomacy, trade, aid, war-making, moral suasion, spying, and covert action. It also shows how the personalities of people who hold high offices and other little-known, behind-the-scenes factors can influence foreign policy. Contemporary issues, including global terrorism, nuclear weapons proliferation, global environmental degradation, world population pressures, and migration issues, are addressed throughout.

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In American Foreign Policy and the Challenges of World Leadership: Power, Principle, and the Constitution, preeminent scholar and renowned advisor on national security Loch K. Johnson offers students an insider's portrait of U.S. foreign policy that explores its underlying and drivingconstitutional principles. Featuring an engaging and...

Loch K. Johnson is Regents Professor of Public and International Affairs at the University of Georgia. He is the author of more than 200 articles and the author or editor of twenty-eight books, including National Security Intelligence (2012) and The Threat on the Horizon: An Inside Account of America's Search for Security after the Co...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:544 pages, 9.25 × 7.5 × 0.68 inPublished:December 23, 2013Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199733619

ISBN - 13:9780199733613

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Table of Contents

About the AuthorPrefaceAcknowledgmentsPART ONE. UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY1. The Objectives And Instruments Of American Foreign PolicyAMERICA UNDER ATTACKTHE IMPORTANCE OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICYTHE OBJECTIVES OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICYMaintaining Peace and SecuritySecuring Economic ProsperityPromoting Quality of LifeUpholding Human RightsPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 1.1THE INSTRUMENTS OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICYNational Security IntelligencePerspectives on American Foreign Policy 1.2DiplomacyMilitary ForceCovert ActionEconomic StatecraftMoral and Cultural SuasionPHILOSOPHIES OF FOREIGN POLICY2. An Analytic Construct for the Study of American Foreign PolicyHIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKITHREE PERSPECTIVES ON FOREIGN POLICY DECISIONSTHE INTERNATIONAL SETTINGBalance of PowerPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 2.1GeopoliticsPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 2.2Complex InterdependenceTHE DOMESTIC SETTINGThe Mirror of the PastExceptionalismThe ConstitutionInstitutional FragmentationPluralist PoliticsTHE IMPORTANCE OF THE INDIVIDUAL DECISION-MAKERRole-PlayingPast ExperienceDistorted Perceptions3. A Constitutional Framework for American Foreign PolicyCONFLICT OVER PRESIDENTIAL WAR POWERSSHARED POWERSTHE WAR POWERDefensive and Offensive WarfareInherent Presidential AuthorityWar by Blank CheckPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 3.1THE TREATY POWERThe Destroyers DealCreeping CommitmentsPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 3.2THE SEEDS OF ACQUIESCENCEMONEY AND OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL DISPUTESThe Purse StringsPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 3.3Diplomatic Recognition, Confirmation, AccountabilityCONFLICT AND COMITYPART TWO. THE INFLUENCES OF HISTORY4. The Formative Years of American Foreign PolicyTHE SINKING OF THE MAINENATION BUILDING, 1776-1898Apart from the WorldAmbivalence toward EuropeExpansionist StirringsMonroe Delivers a LectureWestward Ho!Civil WarA Nation Grown BolderEMERGENCE AS A GREAT POWER, 1898-1920The Spanish-American WarSpreading Democracy and Opening MarketsWilsonian IdealismPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 4.1AMERICA AS A RELUCTANT LEADER, 1920-1945The Fascist ThreatEmbracing Internationalism--Gingerly5. The Cold War and the Doctrine Of ContainmentHIGH NOON IN CUBA, 1962THE NUCLEAR ERAContainment and the Cold WarA New MilitancyPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 5.1PERIL POINTSKorean WarCrises in CubaVietnamPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 5.2DETENTEA Thawing in the Cold WarFresh ConflictsThe Cold War Revived6. American Foreign Policy in a Fractured WorldDEATH IN SOMALIAA FRACTURED WORLDNEW WORLD DISORDERDisintegration of the Soviet UnionBloodbath in the BalkansFusion in Western EuropeDesert StormPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 6.1Chaos in SomaliaWOLVES IN THE WOODSWeapons ProliferationCounternarcoticsImmigrationThe Micro-StatesOther Transnational ChallengesTHE RISE OF GLOBAL TERRORISMThe 9/11 Attacks"Preemptive" War in IraqDrone WarfarePART THREE. INSTITUTIONS AND INDIVIDUALS7. Institutional Conflict And CooperationTHE PRESIDENT, THE CONGRESS, AND DIEN BIEN PHUFRAGMENTS OF POWEREfficiency versus FreedomPresidents versus LawmakersA Foreign Policy CompactTHE PRESIDENCY AND LIMITS TO EXECUTIVE POWERInformation and TimePermissibilityResourcesPrevious CommitmentsFormal PowersTHE FOREIGN POLICY BUREAUCRACYNational Security CouncilThe Departments of State and DefenseTurf BattlesPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 7.1THE CONGRESSMinnows and WhalesLegislative WatchdogsPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 7.2THE COURTSTilt Toward the PresidentCurbing Presidential ExcessFOREIGN POLICY POWER: A STUDY IN CUBISMPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 7.38. Foreign Policy and the American PeopleA VICTORY FOR CONGRESSIONAL ACCOUNTABILITYPUBLIC OPINION AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICYDemocracy versus DemoscopyThe President and Public OpinionOpinion LeadershipCongress and Public Opinion- Vox PopuliINTEREST GROUPS AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICYForeign LobbiesA Kaleidoscope of Domestic PressuresA Diversity of International PressuresTHE INDIVIDUAL AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICYThe Lasswellian HypothesisPsychological Pressures on Foreign Policy LeadersOperational CodesThe Worth of the IndividualPART FOUR. THE INSTRUMENTS OF FOREIGN POLICY9. Intelligence Collection and AnalysisINTELLIGENCE TO THE RESCUEINTELLIGENCE AND THE FOUNDATIONS OF FOREIGN POLICYTHE ORIGINS OF AMERICA'S MODERN SPY AGENCIESThe Coordination of IntelligenceThe Structure of Intelligence- The Intelligence Community- Inside the CIAThe Intelligence MissionsCOLLECTION AND ANALYSISPlanning and DirectionCollection- Targeting- Types of Intelligence- Gathering IntelligenceProcessingAnalysisPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 9.1DisseminationSECRECY AND FOREIGN POLICYPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 9.2Secrets Good and BadExecutive Privilege- The Cloak of Executive Secrecy- Delay and DeceitPrior Restraint10. DiplomacyTHE ATTACK OF THE BRICKERITESTALKING INSTEAD OF FIGHTINGTHE WIKILEAKS PAPERS: THE PRIVATE FACE OF DIPLOMACYTHE BREADTH OF DIPLOMACYCounterterrorism and the Islamic WorldRussia and ChinaEuropeGlobal Hot SpotsTHE MAKING OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTSThe Hidden Side of DiplomacyMilitary AgreementsTHE DANGERS OF DIPLOMACY BY EXECUTIVE FIATConstitutional DiplomacyStirrings on the Fulbright CommitteeThe Case-Zablocki ActThe Treaty Powers ResolutionPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 10.1Two Houses Do Not Make a HomeDIPLOMACY'S FAR REACH11. Military ForceTHE CAMBODIAN "INCURSION"THE LAST FULL MEASUREUSES OF THE WAR POWERWEAPONS OF WAR IN THE NUCLEAR AGEBackpacks and City BustersThe Effects of Nuclear Weapons- Blast and Heat- Radioactivity- Atmospheric AlterationsPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 11.1Chemical, Biological, and Radiological WeaponsStar WarsDeterrence and the Triad- Ground-Launched Missiles- Bombers- SubmarinesCommand and ControlThe Arsenals- Strategic Nuclear Weapons- Tactical Nuclear Weapons- Conventional WeaponsHow Much Is Enough?Arms ControlDECIDING TO USE THE WAR POWERThe War Powers ResolutionWrestling Over the ResolutionThe Mayaguez Rescue- Multinational Peacekeeping Force in Lebanon- US Air and Intelligence Support to NATO in LibyaA House of CardsThe Use of Nuclear Weapons12. Covert ActionTHE SPY AND THE SLEEPY WATCHDOGCOVERT ACTION: AMERICA'S SECRET FOREIGN POLICYLegal UnderpinningsPolicy RationaleTHE METHODS OF COVERT ACTIONPropagandaPolitical ManipulationEconomic DisruptionParamilitary Operations- Paramilitary Authority- Secret Wars- Assassination Plots- Large-Scale Paramilitary OperationsLIMITS FOR COVERT ACTIONA LADDER OF ESCALATION FOR COVERT ACTIONThreshold One: Routine OptionsThreshold Two: Modest IntrusionsThreshold Three: High-Risk OptionsThreshold Four: Extreme OptionsAN EVALUATION OF COVERT ACTIONCOVERT ACTION DECISION MAKINGExecutive Branch Decision ProceduresReporting to CongressLegislative PrerogativesAccountability versus MicromanagementPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 12.1INTELLIGENCE AND PROPRIETYPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 12.213. Economic StatecraftA KING BUYS A SPECIAL AIRPLANETRADE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICYA Portrait of US Trading PartnersNorth and South of the BorderMosel Wine and BMWsChina RisingPROTECTIONISM VERSUS FREE TRADE- GATT- NAFTAThe United States: No Longer the Solitary Economic Behemoth- Trade BarriersECONOMIC FRAGMENTATION AT HOME AND ABROADThe MultinationalsPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 13.1Fragmentation of Economic Power at Home- Divisions with the Executive Branch- Fission on Capitol HillTHE USE OF TRADE SANCTIONSEconomic Carrots and SticksThe Limits of Economic Sanctions and InducementsPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 13.2FOREIGN AIDA Portrait of Foreign AidA Pound of Containment and a Dash of AltruismPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 13.3Souring on AidForeign Aid Successes14. Cultural And Moral SuasionAMERICA VEERS OFF COURSECULTURAL VALUES AND ETHICS IN FOREIGN POLICYPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 14.1ETHICAL DILEMMAS OF THE 20TH CENTURYThe Munich PactHiroshima and NagasakiNuclear Deterrence- Kant and the ConsequentialistsPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 14.2- The Pastoral LetterESPIONAGEDomestic Intelligence RestraintsIntelligence Restraints Abroad- Deutch Rules- Covert ActionPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 14.3- CounterintelligenceHUMAN RIGHTSFreedom and Human DignityQuality of LifeCHARTING A MORAL COURSEThree-Dimensional EthicsPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 14.4Muscle and MoralityPART FIVE. FOREIGN POLICY CHALLENGES15. New Directions For American Foreign PolicyCONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT AND TRUTH-TELLINGA FRESH AGENDA FOR THE UNITED STATES ABROADImproved Citizen Awareness of Global AffairsOvercoming Institutional FragmentationPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.1Toward Greater International EmpathyPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.2An End to Compulsive InterventionismEMBRACING A MORE DISCRIMINATING FOREIGN POLICYPerspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.3Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.4Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.5MAXIMS FOR AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICYAppendix: Key Foreign Policy Passages from the Constitution of the United StatesForeign Policy AbbreviationsGlossaryNotesCreditsIndex