This book provides an introduction to the mathematical theory of homogenization, which describes the replacement of a real composite material by a fictitious homogeneous one. The aim of the theory is to describe the macroscopic properties of the composite by taking into account the propertiesof the microscopic structure. The first four chapters cover variational methods for partial differential equations, which is the natural framework of homogenization theory. The text then discusses the homogenization of several kinds of second order boundary value problems. Particular attention isgiven to the classical examples of the steady and non-steady heat equations, the wave equation and the linearized system of elasticity. All topics are illustrated by figures and numerous examples.