An Outline Of The Necessary Laws Of Thought; A Treatise On Pure And Applied Logic

Paperback | July 8, 2012

byWilliam Thomson

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1866 edition. Excerpt: ... men have the right," that therefore no men have. Inconsistent opposition lies between any two affirmative judgments which cannot be correct together, but may be false together; that is, between A and U, U and Y, and A and Y. Here it becomes necessary to attain a more precise notion of the difference between A and U. Suppose the example of U to be " Animals are things endowed with life and sensation;" which means--that " animals " and " things endowed with life and sensation " are but two modes of representing the same thing, and are therefore interchangeable. Let the example of A be " All men are animals;"--can we say that this judgment has the same properties as the other? can we put " animals" wherever " men" should come into our thoughts? No; " animals " is a very wide class, containing " men" and a vast number of other species. We mean by our judgment, not that men and animals are just the same things, but that men are contained in the wider class animals. This relation might be represented to us by making " men " a small circle, within " animals " a large one; whilst the relation between subject and predicate in U would be best conceived as that of two equal circles laid one upon the other. Now every judgment which is really A, and not U, i. e. which really has an undistributed predicate, means that the predicate is wider than, and contains, the subject; whereas every U means as certainly that the predicate is no wider than the subject. It is true that we sometimes form an A where we might form a U; as in saying that " All men are (some) rational animals," from a belief that in a higher state of being, or in another planet, there may be rational animals to whom it would be improper, from their other characteristics, to apply the name of...

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1866 edition. Excerpt: ... men have the right," that therefore no men have. Inconsistent opposition lies between any two affirmative judgments wh...

Format:PaperbackDimensions:84 pages, 9.69 × 7.44 × 0.17 inPublished:July 8, 2012Publisher:General Books LLCLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0217682359

ISBN - 13:9780217682350

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