The south-eastern tip of continental Europe was a major focus of creative energy in the second half of the first millennium BC. As the bridgehead between Europe, Asia, and the Mediterranean, the lands that corresponded to northern Greece, Bulgaria, and the European parts of Turkey became afocus of interest for a variety of external powers keen to benefit from this region's burgeoning wealth. While the ancient kingdoms of Macedon and Thrace were thought of as fringe areas of the Mediterranean, they became rich and successful, partly by exploiting the region's mineral wealth and timber and from the effective herding of livestock. In economic terms, these land-based states were stronglyconnected to the maritime powers of central and southern Greece and with areas far beyond the Aegean. Using the most up-to-date methods and theories about ancient economies, Archibald explores the cultural and economic dynamics of a region that continues to reveal unexpected dimensions of Classical antiquity.