Written over a decade, this collection traces the emergence of medieval state and social formation in south India, specifically in Tamil Nadu from twelfth to fourteenth centuries. The volume is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the transformation in the landholding andproduction systems. It discusses the changes in produce sharing of temple lands, land revenue policy, and land surveys. The next section studies the emergence of new jatis and social change. It investigates the emergence of social classes occupying the lowest social rung; formation, growth andcommercialization of the local assemblies; and change in the character of towns. The last part examines Chinese sources and overseas trade and how they describe the Chola and Pandyan states. The essays also throw light on the role of merchant guilds, trade, and ports in the development ofsocio-economic milieu.