Animal Life at Low Temperature by John DavenportAnimal Life at Low Temperature by John Davenport

Animal Life at Low Temperature

byJohn Davenport

Paperback | September 24, 2012

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To humans, cold has a distinctly positive quality. 'Frostbite', 'a nip in the air', 'biting cold', all express the concept of cold as an entity which attacks the body, numbing and damaging it in the process. Probably the richness of descriptive English in this area stems from the early experiences of a group of essentially tropical apes, making their living on a cold and windswept island group half­ way between the Equator and the Arctic. During a scientific education we soon learn that there is no such thing as cold, only an absence of heat. Cold does not invade us; heat simply deserts. Later still we come to appreciate that temperature is a reflection of kinetic energy, and that the quantity of kinetic energy in a system is determined by the speed of molecular movement. Despite this realization, it is difficult to abandon the sensible prejudices of palaeolithic Homo sapiens shivering in his huts and caves. For example; appreciating that a polar bear is probably as comfortable when swimming from ice floe to ice floe as we are when swimming in the summer Mediterranean is not easy; understanding the thermal sensa­ tions of a 'cold-blooded' earthworm virtually impossible. We must always be wary of an anthropocentric attitude when considering the effects of cold on other species.
Title:Animal Life at Low TemperatureFormat:PaperbackDimensions:246 pages, 23.5 × 15.5 × 0.17 inPublished:September 24, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:940105035X

ISBN - 13:9789401050357

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Table of Contents

One Introductory Material.- 1 Basic concepts.- 1.1 Temperature.- 1.2 Water and low temperature.- 1.3 Colligative properties of aqueous solutions.- 1.4 Categories of body temperature control.- 1.5 Zone of neutrality, critical temperatures.- 1.6 Newton's Law of cooling.- 1.7 Thermal conductance.- 1.8 Windchill.- 1.9 Q10 relationship.- 1.10 Cold acclimation and cold adaptation.- 1.11 Heat production.- 2 The cold environment.- 2.1 Present conditions.- 2.2 Palaeoclimatology.- 2.3 Climatic zones.- 2.4 High latitude microhabitats.- Two Behaviour, Anatomy and Physiology.- 3 Behavioural responses to low temperature.- 3.1 Movement.- 3.2 Basking.- 3.3 Gregariousness.- 3.4 Shelter.- 4 Anatomy and physiology of endotherms.- 4.1 Shape, size and climate.- 4.2 Structural insulation: fur, fat and feathers.- 4.3 Vascular arrangements to minimize heat loss.- 4.4 Physiological insulation.- 4.5 Thermogenesis.- 5 Sleep, torpor and hibernation.- 5.1 Sleep.- 5.2 Torpor and hibernation in ectotherms.- 5.3 Torpor in endotherms.- 5.4 Hibernation in endotherms.- 5.5 Supercooled hibernation in endotherms.- 5.6 Hibernation in bears.- Three Life at Temperatures Below 0°C.- 6 Subzero survival in terrestrial animals.- 6.1 Survival of insects and other terrestrial arthropods.- 6.2 Freezing-tolerance in terrestrial vertebrates.- 7 Subzero temperatures and marine ectotherms.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Supercooling in deep-water fish.- 7.3 Heightened plasma osmolarity in cold-water fish.- 7.4 Antifreezes in high latitude fish.- 7.5 Eggs of the capelin.- 7.6 Freezing in intertidal invertebrates.- 7.7 Freezing avoidance by intertidal invertebrates.- Four Man and Cold.- 8 Man and cold.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Human morphology and cold.- 8.3 Physiological/metabolic adaptations and responses.- 8.4 Damage by cold.- 8.5 Clothing.- 8.6 Shelter.- 8.7 Fire.- 8.8 Cold and human diet.- 8.9 Medical hypothermia.- 8.10 Cold technology.- Five Cold and Evolution.- 9 Evolution and low temperature.- 9.1 General considerations.- 9.2 Cold and the evolution of endothermy.- 9.3 Cold and extinction.- References.

Editorial Reviews

This new book provides a highly readable account of the ways in which animals of all types cope with a cold environment - Nature; a readable, interesting and useful guide.... thoroughly referenced, well illustrated... the breadth of coverage in this section is appealing. Part Two describing Behaviour, Anatomy and Physiology was thorough and contains a well written section on the anatomy and physiology of endotherms. I was particularly impressed with the extensive section covering sleep, torpor and hibernation... the book as a whole is one which thermal physiologists and others interested in the field will find of great general utility - American Zoological; ...can be recommended to any biologist interested in animal life at low temperature, adn especially to those interested in animal behavior - Ethology