Annual Editions: Geography, 23/e: Geography, 23/e

Paperback | August 28, 2009

byGerald Pitzl

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Annual Editions is a series of over 65 volumes, each designed to provide convenient, inexpensive access to a wide range of current articles from some of the most respected magazines, newspapers, and journals published today. Annual Editions are updated on a regular basis through a continuous monitoring of over 300 periodical sources. The articles selected are authored by prominent scholars, researchers, and commentators writing for a general audience. The Annual Editions volumes have a number of common organizational features designed to make them particularly useful in the classroom: a general introduction; an annotated table of contents; a topic guide; an annotated listing of selected World Wide Web sites; and a brief overview for each section. Each volume also offers an online Instructor's Resource Guide with testing materials. Using Annual Editions in the Classroom is the general instructor's guide for our popular Annual Editions series and is available in print (0073301906) or online. Visit for more details.

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Annual Editions is a series of over 65 volumes, each designed to provide convenient, inexpensive access to a wide range of current articles from some of the most respected magazines, newspapers, and journals published today. Annual Editions are updated on a regular basis through a continuous monitoring of over 300 periodical sources. T...

Format:PaperbackDimensions:176 pages, 10.8 × 8.3 × 0.4 inPublished:August 28, 2009Publisher:McGraw-Hill EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0073515515

ISBN - 13:9780073515519

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Extra Content

Table of Contents

Annual Editions: Geography 10/11


Correlation Guide

Topic Guide

Internet References

World Map

UNIT 1: Geography in a Changing World

Unit Overview

1. The Big Questions in Geography, Susan L. Cutter, Reginald Golledge, and William L. Graf, The Professional Geographer, August 2002
The authors describe science correspondent John Noble Wilford's challenge to the discipline of geography to articulate the big questions in the field. Wilford's concern is that research by geographers is not being reported and that geographers may be missing the important questions in their research.
2. Rediscovering the Importance of Geography, Alexander B. Murphy, The Chronicle of Higher Education, October 30, 1998
Geography's renaissance in U.S. education is the key theme of this piece. The author insists that geography be recognized not as an exercise in place names, but because it addresses physical and human processes and sheds light on the nature and meaning of changing spatial arrangements and landscapes.
3. The Four Traditions of Geography, William D. Pattison, Journal of Geography, September/October 1990
This key article, originally published in 1964, was reprinted with the author's later comments, in the 75-year retrospective of the Journal of Geography. It is a classic in the history of geography. William Pattison discusses the four main themes that have been the focus of work in the discipline of geography for centuries-the spatial concept, area studies, land-human relationships, and earth science.
4. The Changing Landscape of Fear, Susan L. Cutter, Douglas B. Richardson, and Thomas J. Wilbanks, The Geographical Dimensions of Terrorism, 2003)
Since the devastating events of September 11, 2001, the world has changed. An era of expanded global terrorism has emerged. "The Changing Landscape of Fear," chapter one in the book, outlines the contributions that geography can make in this ensuing conflict.
5. The Geography of Ecosystem Services, James Boyd, Resources, Fall 2008
According to the author, geography is essential to the study of ecosystem services, which includes the biophysical and economic realms. Further, ecological functions are best described and illustrated in maps and GIS tools.
6. The Agricultural Impact of Global Climate Change: How Can Developing-Country Farmers Cope?, Nathan Russell, Geotimes, April 2007
Greenhouse gas emissions already account for a 0.7 degree Celsius increase in the average temperature of the Earth's surface. The increase is predicted to reach 3.0 degrees Celsius later in the 21st century if greenhouse gas emissions continue at current rates. With record population numbers and already degraded agricultural systems in many regions, critical challenges to the maintenance and expansion of food production are evident.
7. When Diversity Vanishes, Don Monroe, Santa Fe Institute Bulletin, Spring 2008
Diversity of human culture groups has long been recognized for its positive attributes. Studies at the Santa Fe Institute suggest that diversity could be declining from industrial agriculture, which threatens variation in crops grown, and forces of homogenization, which account for the rapid extinction of languages.
8. Classic Map Revisited: The Growth of Megalopolis, Richard Morrill, The Professional Geographer, May 2006
The original 1961 map of Megalopolis, which first appeared in Jean Gottmann's classic study, is updated to show the growth of this important urban region. The "main street of America," as Gottmann named it, now reaches from Portsmouth, Maine south to Fredericksburg, Virginia. The population of Megalopolis exceeded 42 million in 2000.

UNIT 2: Human-Environment Relations

Unit Overview

9. A Great Wall of Waste, The Economist, August 21, 2004
Polluted mines, toxic landfills, and carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants are resulting in extensive pollution in China. Negative effects on human health, the death of rivers, and a declining agricultural output highlight the country's rapid push for economic development.
10. In Niger, Trees and Crops Turn Back the Desert: A Poor African Nation Uses a Simple Mix to Grow Greener, Lydia Polgreen, The New York Times, February 11, 2007
Niger, a poor country in the Sahel with a population of 13 million, is seeing a resurgence of tree cover from (1) increased rainfall and (2) a modified agricultural practice of not cutting out tree saplings at planting time. More trees will help to deter environmental damage. The long-term climatic prediction calls for drought due to continued global warming.
11. Whither the World's Last Forest?, Mark London and Brian Kelly, U.S. News & World Report, February 12, 2007
A voluminous oil and gas extraction site in the Amazon rainforest will bring needed energy to expand economic development on Manaus. Brazil aims to continue economic development, improve accessibility within its vast interior, and sustain the rainforest, which has lost 20 percent of its tree cover since the 1970s.
12. Why It's Time for a "Green New Deal", Christopher Dickey and Tracy McNicoll, Newsweek, November 10, 2008
As a result of the 2008 global economic recession, world leaders and the International Energy Agency are vigorously calling for a "Green New Deal," a worldwide move toward climate-friendly energy production and big cuts in greenhouse gas emissions.
13. Study Finds Humans' Effect on Oceans Comprehensive, Juliet Eilperin, The Washington Post, February 15, 2008
Environmental degradation has expanded to virtually every area of the oceans. The atmospheric greenhouse effect is causing ocean temperatures to rise, overfishing is depleting sea life populations, and the accumulation of discarded materials into ocean waters is increasing pollution.
14. Polar Distress, Daniel Glick, Audubon, May/June 2008
Predictions of a virtually ice-free Arctic Ocean are raising expectations that the Chukchi Sea will be opened for oil drilling. This would present a serious environmental disruption and a further challenge to the fate of the polar bear.
15. What China Can Learn from Japan on Cleaning up the Environment, Bill Emmott, McKinsey Quarterly, September 2008
Currently, China is experiencing worsening air and water pollution as its economic system expands. Its energy intensity measure (energy used per unit of GDP) is rising, and China surpassed the United States in 2007 to become the world leader in the volume of greenhouse gas emissions. This article suggests that China study and implements the Japanese model to improve its environmental conditions.

UNIT 3: The Region

Unit Overview

16. The Rise of India, Manjeet Kripalani and Pete Engardio, Business Week, December 8, 2003
Economic growth is soaring in India. Software production, information technology, computer chip design, and call center operations are only a few of the expanding sectors. India has become an important player in the global economy. There are positive implications for the United States as Indian brainpower will fill the manpower gaps once the U.S. baby boom population begins to retire. India is the first developing country to use its brainpower rather than physical resources to expand its economy.
17. Hints of a Comeback for Nation's First Superhighway, Christopher Maag, The New York Times, November 2, 2008
Long considered a "relic of history", the Erie Canal is enjoying a resurgence of activity due to high fuel costs for highway vehicles. A major transportation corridor in the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries, the Erie Canal is again making the East Coast more accessible to the Midwest.
18. The Short End of the Longer Life, Kevin Sack, The New York Times, April 27, 2008
Life expectancy declined in dozens of U.S. counties between 1983 and 1999. The maps and graph indicate that the declines were especially high in the regions of the Midwest and South. This unprecedented demographic shift is partly attributed to poverty and fundamental regional economic inequities.
19. Never Too Late to Scramble: China in Africa, The Economist, October 28, 2006
China's explosive economic growth is being enhanced through procurement of raw materials and farm produce from countries in Africa. Trade with China is a plus for the countries involved. However, increased commodity costs become an economic issue for African countries without resources to trade.
20. Where Business Meets Geopolitics, The Economist, May 25, 2005
The region of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea is taking on geopolitical significance because of the transport of oil and natural gas. Western Europe, Russia, China, and the United States are all showing interest in this precious commodity that is so important to economic growth.
21. Half-Way from Rags to Riches, The Economist, April 26, 2008
Vietnam is on a path to becoming a modern industrial state by 2020 as its economic growth continues. The country has a successful agricultural sector and has become an exporter of clothing and furniture. However, widespread poverty and an antiquated physical infrastructure could slow growth. Inadequate power generation and poor roads are the main problems.
22. Malaria: It's Not Neglected Any More (But It's Not Gone, Either), Hellen Gelband, Resources, Spring 2008
Poverty and malaria continue to be a persistent pairing. Globally, billions of dollars are spent on malaria control, but the disease persists especially in the regions of Central Africa, the Amazon Basin, and South and Southeast Asia. A global approach to malaria eradication is needed.
23. Tsunamis: How Safe Is the United States?, Thomas Aaron Green, Focus on Geography, Spring 2006
The greatest danger of tsunami occurrence in the United States appears to be along the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. One reason is the similarity of the geologic subduction zone along this coast to the one off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.

UNIT 4: Spatial Interaction and Mapping

Unit Overview

24. The World Is Spiky, Richard Florida, The Atlantic, October 2005
The author uses four maps to refute Thomas Friedman's notion that the world is flat. Four "spike" maps show decided concentrations of population in urban areas, economic activity, innovation centers as measured by patent production, and the locations of the 1200 most cited scientists.
25. Hurricane Hot Spots: Most Vulnerable Cities, USA Today Newspaper, June 1, 2006
A series of maps and bar graphs identify the urban areas in the United States most vulnerable to severe hurricane damage. The map patterns, based on zip-code areas, indicate the potential losses in millions of dollars from a major hurricane.
26. Sea Change: The Transformation of the Arctic, Scott Borgerson, The Atlantic, November 2008
The opening of the long-sought Northwest Passage shown on the map will mark a new and significant transportation corridor. Geo-strategic power will accrue to ocean ports with accessibility to this route and economic growth will occur as oil, natural gas, and mineral deposits off Greenland's eastern coast are exploited. In November 2008, Greenland was slated for independence from Denmark, making it the first country to emerge in the current era of climate change.
27. Shaping the World to Illustrate Inequalities in Health, Danny Dorling and Anna Barford, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, November 2007
Cartograms, or map transformations, illustrate several global population changes including infant mortality change by country. Not surprisingly, countries with high poverty have the highest rates of infant mortality.
28. Deaths Outnumber Births in Third of Counties, Haya El Nasser, USA Today, January 3, 2008
The number of deaths exceeded births in one-third of U.S. counties from 1967 to 2006. In most of these counties, population declined as the number of in-migrants was lower than the number of deaths. The map shows the high-loss counties predominate in the regions of the Midwest and Appalachia.
29. How Much Is Your Vote Worth?, Sarah K. Cowan, Stephan Doyle, and Drew Hefron, The New York Times, November 2, 2008
This map transformation shows each state in proportion to its total number of delegates to the Electoral College and the number of eligible voters each delegate represents. The idea of "one person, one vote" is proven not to be the case.
30. Fortune Teller, Ann de Forest, Navigator, October/December 2002
The author looks back at an exciting episode in the history of map-making. Richard Harrison's maps of World War II regions and the changing geopolitical outcomes of that conflict are novel and refreshing.
31. Teaching Note: The U.S. Ethanol Industry with Comments on the Great Plains, Sparks Company, Inc. and Kansas State University
The map in this article shows corn production by county and ethanol plants (an important energy source) by processing capacity. There is a striking spatial relationship between high levels of both corn production and ethanol processing.
32. Clogged Arteries, Bruce Katz and Robert Puentes, The Atlantic, March 2008
Inequality in regional spending on transportation systems in the United States is causing severe traffic congestion. Although the 100 largest urban areas generate 75 percent of national economic output, only half of the planned maintenance and expansion projects are targeted for these key complexes. The map shows the key points of clogging in the United States.
33. Manifest Destinations, Marc Bain and Kevin Hand, Newsweek, January 26, 2009
This one-page assemblage of maps and graphs shows that migration patterns in the United States continue to favor moves to the South and West. In addition, the major urban areas, only 12 percent of the land area, produce 75 percent of GDP.
34. AIDS Infects Education Systems in Africa, Bess Keller, Education Week, March 16, 2005
The incidence of AIDS and HIV in Africa continues to rise. The rates of infection are highest in the southern region of the continent as indicated on the choropleth map.

UNIT 5: Population, Resources, and Socioeconomic Development

Unit Overview

35. Wonderful World? The Way We Live Now, James Traub, The New York Times Magazine, March 19, 2006
This article compares the era of the Cold War with the current Age of Terror. Globally, the incidence of armed conflict has diminished with the exception of international terrorism. Although the world is less wartorn, the perception, especially in the West, is that it is not less dangerous.
36. What Lies Beneath, Heidi Ridgley, National Parks, Spring 2006
With the aim of procuring oil and gas from places other than the Middle East, plans are in place to extract these resources near the borders of national parks. Although the amounts extracted would add very little to the country's energy supplies, the environmental degradation in the form of air and groundwater pollution and disruption of wildlife habitats would be significant.
37. Cloud, or Silver Linings?, The Economist, July 28, 2007
Japan's population is aging rapidly. In the 1950s, those over 65 accounted for 5 percent of the population. In 2007, the elderly represent 20 percent and life expectancy has risen to 82 years. A consequent paucity of young people will have a negative impact on the economic system as the number of workers decline. Some urban places are planning to limit growth as more people move from the rural areas.
38. Troubled Waters, Mary Carmichael, Newsweek, June 4, 2007
As world population increases, the demand for freshwater rises with it. The agricultural "Green Revolution" of recent decades dramatically increased food production; but the cost was high in water consumption. Many regions are now water poor and with limited accessibility to new sources. In many regions of high poverty in the world, access to freshwater is severely limited.
39. Turning Oceans into Tap Water, Ted Levin, OnEarth, Summer 2004
Desalinization of ocean water, if economically feasible, would be a boon to growing world population and to agriculture and industrial activities globally. This article focuses on desalinization efforts in the United States. Breakthroughs made here will have applications worldwide.
40. Malthus Redux: Is Doomsday upon Us, Again?, Donald G. McNeil, Jr., The New York Times, June 15, 2008
Globally, 800 million people are chronically hungry; and this raises once again the specter of Thomas Malthus, who concluded that food shortages would occur because population increases geometrically, while food production grows only arithmetically.
41. Global Response Required: Stopping the Spread of Nuclear Weapons, Jeffrey G. Martin and Matt Martin, Courier, no. 52-53, Fall 2006
Since the end of the Cold War, the proliferation of nuclear weapons has become a global problem. The prospect of an open arms race coupled with the fear of international terrorism in the post-9/11 era is raising serious concern worldwide.
42. A World Enslaved, E. Benjamin Skinner, Foreign Policy, March/April 2008
Upwards of 20 million people are enslaved across the world. Absence of strong governmental laws and sanctions on slavery combined with the presence of regions of high poverty work to perpetuate a practice outlawed in the 19th century. Throughout Africa, Europe, Asia, and the Americas, individuals are enslaved for prostitution and forced labor. The problem is especially acute in South Asia where 10 million live in slavery.

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