Annual Editions: Psychology, 46/e by R. Eric LandrumAnnual Editions: Psychology, 46/e by R. Eric Landrum

Annual Editions: Psychology, 46/e

byR. Eric Landrum

Paperback | January 27, 2015

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The Annual Editions series is designed to provide convenient, inexpensive access to a wide range of current articles from some of the most respected magazines, newspapers, and journals published today. Annual Editions are updated on a regular basis through a continuous monitoring of over 300 periodical sources. The articles selected are authored by prominent scholars, researchers, and commentators writing for a general audience. Each Annual Editions volume has a number of features designed to make them especially valuable for classroom use: an annotated Table of Contents, a Topic Guide, an annotated listing of supporting websites, Learning Outcomes and a brief overview for each unit, and Critical Thinking questions at the end of each article. Go to the McGraw-Hill Create™ Annual Editions Article Collection at www.mcgrawhillcreate.com/annualeditions to browse the entire collection. Select individual Annual Editions articles to enhance your course, or access and select the entire Landrum: Annual Editions: Psychology, 46/e ExpressBook for an easy, pre-built teaching resource by clicking here. An online Instructor’s Resource Guide with testing material is available for each Annual Editions volume. Using Annual Editions in the Classroom is also an excellent instructor resource. Visit the Create Central Online Learning Center at www.mhhe.com/createcentral for more details.
Title:Annual Editions: Psychology, 46/eFormat:PaperbackDimensions:10.8 × 8.5 × 0.4 inPublished:January 27, 2015Publisher:McGraw-Hill EducationLanguage:English

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ISBN - 10:1259345246

ISBN - 13:9781259345241

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Table of Contents

Annual Editions: Psychology, 46/e

Preface

Correlation Guide

Topic Guide

UNIT 1: The Science of Psychology

Unit Overview

1. The 10 Commandments of Helping Students Distinguish Science from Pseudoscience in Psychology, Scott O. Lilienfeld, APS Observer, 2005.
Author Scott Lilienfeld contends that beginning psychology students believe that the term psychology is synonymous with popular psychology, a discipline not firmly grounded in science. Lilienfeld continues that students should learn to discriminate good science and sound psychology from pseudoscience and psychology, as presented in the mass media, and be skeptical about popular psychology.
2. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness and the Future of Psychology, Martin E.P. Seligman and Raymond D. Fowler, American Psychologist, 2011.
Psychology has played in pivotal role in the U.S. Army since the early days of World War I with respect to recruit selection and more recently with treatment of psychological disorders among the rank and file. In this article, the authors show how positive psychology is being used to help improve soldiers' resilience in the face of repeated combat and related stressors in an effort to prevent or reduce anxiety, depression, suicide, and post-traumatic stress disorder.
3. Improving Health, Worldwide, Kirsten Weir, Monitor on Psychology, 2012.
Psychologists have an incredible opportunity to promote health and help prevent disease, writes Weir reporting on recent research. One of the greatest threats to human life is malaria, which killed over 650,000 people worldwide in 2010. This is tragic, because the disease is both preventable and curable.
4. Psychology Is a Hub Science, John T. Cacioppo, APS Observer, 2007.
Discussing complex analyses that address scientific publications and relationships between concepts, Cacioppo persuasively makes the argument that psychology could be considered the hub science, just as theology and philosophy were classically believed to be hub disciplines in the Middle Ages.
5. A Scientific Pioneer and a Reluctant Role Model, Erin Millar, The Globe and Mail, 2012.
From the early days of neurosurgery, Dr. Brenda Milner describes her role as both a researcher and a role model for other female scientists who work in male-dominated fields of study. By working, succeeding, and exceling in a male-dominated area such as neuroscience, Milner was able challenge stereotypes and break down barriers for others.
6. That's So Random: Why We Persist in Seeing Streaks, Carl Zimmer, New York Times, 2014.
Humans can have a difficult time in recognizing patterns; sometimes we see patterns that are not present, and other times we miss patterns occurring in front of us. The ability to understand when an event is random (or not) can have momentous influence on how we make decisions.

UNIT 2: Biological Bases of Behavior

7. Reflections on Mirror Neurons, Temma Ehrenfeld, APS Observer, 2011.
Only recently have scientists discovered mirror neurons in humans. These neurons depolarize when we perceive particular activities and engage in similar activities. Mirror neurons appear to be important to learning through observation.
8. Does Thinking Really Hard Burn More Calories?, Ferris Jabr, Scientific American, 2012.
After a difficult mental challenge (such as completing a cumulative final exam or finishing the ACTs), how does the mental exhaustion relate to the physical exhaustion exhibited by some? In this article, Jabr reports on recent research that characterizes the energy consumption patterns of an active brain.
9. A Single Brain Structure May Give Winners That Extra Physical Edge, Sandra Upson, Scientific American, 2012.
Reporting on the outcomes of recent research, Upson describes the brain's insular cortex (also called the insula) and its role in helping athletes anticipate future feelings A more highly developed insula in athletes may help them with better interoception-the sense of the body's internal state. Athletes with highly precise interoception may experience a competitive advantage.
10. The New Science of Mind, Eric R. Kandel, New York Times, 2013.
The connections between mind and body are becoming more clear with the advent of researchers attempting to better understand the biology of depression or the effects of psychotherapy. Even at the genetic level, researchers are beginning to understand that small differences in genes can help to explain certain conditions, such as autism or schizophrenia.

UNIT 3: Perceptual Processes

11. Uncanny Sight in the Blind, Beatrice de Gelder, Scientific American, 2010.
Some people who suffer blindness due to brain damage have the amazing capacity for blindsight. That is, these individuals can detect visual properties of many stimuli, even though they cannot determine what those stimuli are. Blindsight enables otherwise totally blind individuals to detect, among other things, shapes, movement, color, and in some cases facial displays of emotion.
12. Corporeal Awareness and Proprioceptive Sense of the Phantom, Melita Giummarra, et al., British Journal of Psychiatry, 2010.
Amputees frequently report feeling the continued existence and movement of amputated limbs, which is called phantom limb perception. In a research study with 283 amputees, most amputees report that the phantom limb is normally sized and in its normal position; however, the location of the amputation and the conditions under which it occurred seem to influence the perception of phantom sensation.
13. You Do Not Talk about Fight Club if You Do Not Notice Fight Club: Inattentional Blindness for a Simulated Real-World Assault, Christopher F. Chabris, et al., i-Perceptions, 2011.
These researchers asked the question about how paying attention to one aspect of the environment can make us blind to other salient events (called inattentional blindness). In a real-world experience, 56% of participants noticed a staged fight during the day, whereas only 35% noticed the fight during the night. An event can occur right in front of us that we do not see.
14. Rethinking Motion Sickness, Peter Andrey Smith, New York Times, 2013.
Is it that motion sickness causes individuals to lose their balance, or does losing your balance lead you to become motion sick? Interesting motion sickness research is underway both in the lab and on cruise ships.

UNIT 4: Learning

15. Psychological Science and Safety: Large-Scale Success at Preventing Occupational Injuries and Fatalities, E. Scott Geller, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2011.
Behavior analyst E. Scott Geller discusses the successful application of behavior analytic methods to reducing injuries and fatalities in the workplace. In particular, Geller describes how employees who are trained to identify dangerous work conditions, including their engagement in risky behavior, enhances the tendency to engage in safe work behaviors.
16. The Perils and Promises of Praise, Carol S. Dweck, Educational Leadership, 2007.
Psychologist Carol Dweck explains the positive and negative effects of praise on student learning and how praise can be used as an incentive to produce more learning in students. She contends that students may have one of two mindsets-a fixed mindset that focuses on how others judge them or a growth mindset that centers around learning in general and learning from one's mistakes in particular. Her research has shown that praising students for possessing a quality leads to a fixed mindset, whereas praising students for making an effort to acquire that quality contributes to a growth mindset.
17. Will Behave for Money, Sadie F. Dingfelder, Monitor on Psychology, 2011.
By using a contingency management system, good behaviors can be reinforced by giving cash, such as getting HIV-positive methadone patients to take their medication, or convincing pregnant smokers to stop smoking. Dingfelder reports on these and other research efforts that optimize the use of contingency management to positively shape people's behaviors.
18. Phobias: The Rationale behind Irrational Fears, Dean Burnett, The Guardian, 2013.
The author addresses details about phobias, including arachnophobia and agoraphobia, as well as some thoughts about how they develop and treatment options.
19. Incentives for Drivers Who Avoid Traffic Jams, John Markoff, New York Times, 2012.
Trying to solve the congestion caused by automobiles often uses the stick approach rather than the carrot, but this researcher is attempting to use game theory to encourage drivers to modify their commute times to less congested times in order to enhance chances at winning an "anti-congestion" lottery.

UNIT 5: Cognitive Processes

20. The Secret Life of Pronouns by James Pennebaker: What Do "I" and "We" Reveal about Us?, Juliet Lapidos, Slate, 2011.
In this article, Lapidos reports on recent research that examines the role of pronouns as unexpected keys to communication. For instance, certain words, such as "nice" or "weird," are considered content words. However, this research focuses on function words, such as pronouns, articles, prepositions, and auxiliary verbs.
21. The Epidemic of Media Multitasking While Learning, Annie Murphy Paul, The Brilliant Blog, 2013.
This author describes research suggesting that when students multitask during schoolwork, the learning is less effective and more shallow as compared to studying with full attention. Other negative performance effects associated with multitasking, such as more time needed to complete assignments, more mistakes, and lower grades, have also been documented.
22. Pigeons, Like Humans, Can Behave Irrationally, Sandra Upson, Scientific American, 2013.
Researchers are exploring the idea that if animals exhibit irrational behaviors (such as gambling), that commonality with humans may lead to some of the underlying brain mechanisms. Using pigeons in a laboratory, the researchers noted that pigeons make common reasoning mistakes similar to compulsive gamblers, such as the sunk cost fallacy.
23. The Inner Workings of the Executive Brain, Andrew Blackman, The Wall Street Journal, 2014.
A number of recent research findings are presented, such as deadlines associated with high levels of stress do not allow for open and innovating thinking, as once thought. And in situations with high uncertainty, decisions tend to be made with doom and gloom in mind.
24. "They are Happier and Having Better Lives than I Am": The Impact of Using Facebook on Perceptions of Others' Lives, Hui-Tzu Grace Chou and Nicholas Edge, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 2012.
These researchers tested the hypothesis that Facebook users are influenced by easily recalled examples and that when reading positive content on Facebook, that positive content is due to the others' personality rather than situational differences that other people experience. The length of time that users have been on Facebook appears to be an important variable in explaining the impact that Facebook can have.

UNIT 6: Emotion and Motivation

25. Women at the Top: Powerful Leaders Define Success as Work + Family in a Culture of Gender, Fanny M. Cheung and Diane F. Halpern, American Psychologist, 2010.
More and more women are emerging as leaders of businesses, industry, and national governments. The authors of this article raise the question about how women, who typically have strong family care responsibilities, become such influential and successful leaders. Based on cross-cultural research, the authors develop a leadership model to account for why women are able to make it to the top of their fields.
26. Resisting Temptation, Eric Wargo, APS Observer, 2009.
According to this article, willpower is the secret of self-mastery or the ability to exercise self-control when confronted with the choice between a smaller, short-term reward and a larger, longer-term reward.
27. What Does Guilt Do?, Art Markman, Psychology Today, 2012.
Guilt is a powerful emotion because it is key to maintaining relationships with others in our environment. Reporting on recent research, Markman explores two possible functions of guilt: trying to help the person who was harmed in some way or trying to help others more generally.
28. Need Motivation? Declare a Deadline, Phyllis Korkki, The New York Times, 2013.
This author discusses the role of deadlines and how making a deadline public can be a positive motivator for completing the necessary task.
29. Self-Efficacy in the Workplace: Implications for Motivation and Performance, Fred C. Lunenburg, International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 2011.
In this review paper, the author defines self-efficacy as the beliefs about one's ability to complete specific tasks, and then discusses four specific aspects or components of self-efficacy: past performance, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and emotional cues.

UNIT 7: Development

30. The Mind at Midlife, Melissa Lee Phillips, Monitor on Psychology, 2011.
In this article, the author addresses the belief that middle-aged adults experience diminished brain functioning and shows that in many instances this belief is unfounded. In fact, middle-aged adults sometimes develop new cognitive skills.
31. Harnessing the Wisdom of the Ages, Amy Maxmen, Monitor on Psychology, 2012.
Reporter Maxmen writes about the success of Experience Corps, a nonprofit program that recruits and organizes retired volunteers to serve as mentors to students who are struggling in schools of need. Not only do students benefit, but fMRI studies suggest cognitive benefits to seniors as well.
32. The Benefits of Positive Parenting, David Bornstein, The New York Times, 2013.
This author writes about the outcomes based in improving parenting from a project called the Positive Parenting Program. Given the pervasive nature of child abuse and neglect worldwide, the scientific study of parenting may be able to provide small interventions that can provide positive results.
33. Clues to Teaching Young Children to Tell the Truth, Shirley S. Wang, The Wall Street Journal, 2014.
In a innovative study about children and lying, this reporter writes about researchers who told stories to children just before placing them in a situation where it would be very easy to lie. Stories that highlighted the positive reasons for telling the truth reduced lying more than stories that highlighted the negative consequences of lying.
34. Little Children and Already Acting Mean, Sumathi Reddy, The Wall Street Journal, 2014.
Researchers are beginning to systematically study relational aggression in young children, which is the idea that a child may manipulate others by threatening to remove friendship. It has been found that relational aggression is linked to health problems, including depression and anxiety.

UNIT 8: Personality Processes

35. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research, Satoshi Kanazawa, American Psychologist, 2010.
Using his Savanna Principle-the idea that humans have difficulty understanding and adjusting to circumstances absent in their evolutionary history-Kanazawa argues that evolutionary psychology is helpful in studying intelligence and in developing novel approaches for researching intelligence.
36. Enough about You, Christopher Lasch, Utne Reader, 2011.
In an in-depth essay about narcissism, writer Lasch reviews the social and economic influences on our behavior and how we affect others. How do we find the balance between self-promotion (self-preservation) and the development and encouragement of others around us?
37. That Elusive Birth Order Effect and What It Means for You, Susan Krauss Whitbourne, Psychology Today, 2013.
This author describes the outcomes from a meta-analysis of 529 journal articles about birth order published over a 20-year period. Birth order is more complex than the common stereotypes, and researchers examine differences between actual birth order (the numerical rank in the family) and psychological birth order (one's self-perceived position in the family).
38. How Good Are the Asians? Refuting Four Myths about Asian-American Academic Achievement, Yong Zhao and Wei Qiu, Phi Delta Kappan, 2009.
These authors address common beliefs about Asian Americans and academic achievements and point to harmful myths that mask underlying problems. Because of the prevalence of such myths, there are policy implications for educational institutions that may be misguided if policy choices are based on mythological beliefs.
39. 'Self Talk': When Talking To Yourself, the Way You Do It Makes a Difference, Elizabeth Bernstein, The Wall Street Journal, 2014.
There are different types of self-talk that can be beneficial, such as motivational self-talk and instructional self-talk. The method of self-talk can also be influential, such as using your own name or "you" in your self-talk is better than using the pronoun "I," according to research findings.

UNIT 9: Social Processes

40. Replicating Milgram, Jerry Burger, APS Observer, 2007.
Long heralded as one of the most ethically controversial psychology studies of all time, modern-day researchers have questioned whether college and university institutional review boards (IRBs) would approve replication of Milgram's obedience to authority study today. However, psychologist Jerry Burger received IRB approval to conduct a partial replication of this famous study and tells the story of how he did it in this article.
41. The Psychology and Power of False Confessions, Ian Herbert, APS Observer, 2009.
When charged with committing a crime, some individuals confess to having done it, even though they are completely and totally innocent. Such false confessions seem to transcend logic and have prompted psychologists to study the factors that compel people to confess falsely. A defendant's confession often convinces juries that he or she is guilty as charged and often corrupts other evidence, including eyewitness testimony, which further leads juries to believe the accused is guilty-even when the confession is false.
42. Gross National Happiness in Bhutan: The Big Idea from a Tiny State That Could Change the World, Annie Kelly, The Guardian, 2012.
From a nationwide perspective, the country of Bhutan has worked to measure progress not from measures such as the gross national product, but to emphasize the spiritual, physical, social, and environmental health of citizens through measures of what is called gross national happiness (GNH). As this developing country values environmental conservation and sustainability, GNH principles also extend to educational principles and practices.
43. 13 Practical Tips for Training in Other Countries, William J. Rothwell, T+D, 2012.
Global opportunities necessitate the training of individuals to understand cultural nuances and local etiquette, but this author suggests that learning and development professionals must be culturally sensitive to issues on a deeper level. The author offers 13 tips for those desiring meaningful training experiences in different countries.
44. The Kids Aren't All Right, Christopher Munsey, Monitor on Psychology, 2010.
New research shows that parents underestimate the extent to which their children experience stress and worry. This research also shows that mothers experience stress more than fathers and that of eight major metropolitan areas in the United States, residents of Denver experience the most stress.
45. The Third Wheel: the Impact of Twitter Use on Relationship Infidelity and Divorce, Russell B. Clayton, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 2014.
In this empirical research, active Twitter users led to increased Twitter-related conflict for romantic partners, which were in turn related to infidelity, breakup, and divorce. The negative effects of Twitter-related conflict occurred for couples who had been in short- and longer-term relationships.

UNIT 10: Psychological Disorders

46. The Recession's Toll on Children, Amy Novotney, Monitor on Psychology, 2010.
Among the deleterious effects of poverty is impairment of cognitive functioning in children. As psychologists study this relationship, they are discovering new ways of intervening to prevent this problem. Primary among these interventions is parent training.
47. Hypochondria: The Impossible Illness, Jeff Pearlman, Psychology Today, 2010.
Hypochondriasis is a condition where a person has symptoms of an illness but there is no specific identifiable cause for the illness. In this article, Pearlman discusses his own struggle with being a hypochondriac and reviews the most recent research into the causes and treatments of this disorder.
48. Bringing Life into Focus, Brendan L. Smith, Monitor on Psychology, 2012.
Although the stereotype is that ADHD is a childhood disorder, ADHD in adults can cause substantial disruptions in relationships, careers, and the pursuit of higher education. Smith reports on recent research about the diagnosis of adult ADHD and the role medications (such as stimulants) may play.
49. The Roots of Mental Illness, Kirsten Weir, Monitor on Psychology, 2012.
An approach gaining more traction in psychology is that mental illness results from a malfunction of brain processes, which leads to the importance of taking a biological perspective. Weir reports on researchers who agree and who do not completely agree with this viewpoint, focusing on the fruitful explanations that a biological perspective can offer.

UNIT 11: Psychological Treatment

50. More Support Needed for Trauma Intervention, Beth Azar, Monitor on Psychology, 2012.
Researchers have demonstrated that children who are neglected and abused suffer from an increased risk of substantial mental health and physical health problems. Azar reports on recent research that chronicles both the scope of the PTSD problem for children as well as effective interventions.
51. Yes, Recovery Is Possible, Rebecca A. Clay, Scientific American, 2012.
As part of the Recovery to Practice initiative, mental health professionals from diverse backgrounds are collaborating to help other mental health practitioners understand that people can recover from mental illnesses. Based on the research, Clay reports about the successes of the initiative to both identify best practices for mental health recovery as well as develop training programs for mental health professionals.
52. Addiction Interaction, Relapse and Recovery, Cheryl Knepper, Scientific American, 2013.
This author describes the situation in which substance abuse and addiction often co-exist with other addictions and compulsive behaviors, such that treating one condition without treating the other may result in less-than-desired outcomes. Reporting on recent research, an integrated multidisciplinary treatment approach that includes family members may provide an opportunity to normalize patient behavior, as well as identify relapse triggers and high-risk situations.
53. Post-Prozac Nation: The Science and History of Treating Depression, Siddhartha Mukherjee, The New York Times, 2012.
Antidepressants, like Prozac, are the third most common prescription drug in the United States. Patients with depression describe the relief provided by Prozac as transformative and like the lifting of a fog. The author describes several hypotheses for how Prozac works, including the correction of existing chemical imbalances in the brain. In some research circles, the key question has shifted from how Prozac works to does Prozac work?
54. Different Way to Treat Depression: Games, Angela Chen, The Wall Street Journal, 2014.
Although nothing replaces face-to-face psychotherapy, there is now emerging research that indicates that apps and gamification can help increase access to mental health treating. By completing quests in a gaming context, small steps with rewards can help individuals improve their general outlook and well-being.