Anthropology: What Does It Mean to be Human? by Robert H. LavendaAnthropology: What Does It Mean to be Human? by Robert H. Lavenda

Anthropology: What Does It Mean to be Human?

byRobert H. Lavenda, Emily A. Schultz

Paperback | December 1, 2014

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A unique alternative to more traditional, encyclopedic introductory texts, Anthropology: What Does It Mean to Be Human?, Third Edition, takes a question-oriented approach that incorporates cutting-edge theory and new ways of looking at important contemporary issues such as power, human rights,and inequality. With a total of sixteen chapters, this engaging, full-color text is an ideal one-semester overview that delves deep into anthropology without overwhelming students.
Robert H. Lavenda is Professor of Anthropology and Co-chair of the Department of Anthropology at St. Cloud State University. Emily A. Schultz is Professor of Anthropology at St. Cloud State University.
Title:Anthropology: What Does It Mean to be Human?Format:PaperbackDimensions:576 pages, 11 × 8.5 × 0.68 inPublished:December 1, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0190210842

ISBN - 13:9780190210847

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Table of Contents

BoxesPreface1. What Is Anthropology?What Is Anthropology?What Is the Concept of Culture?What Makes Anthropology a Cross-Disciplinary Discipline?Biological AnthropologyIn Their Own Words: Anthropology as a Vocation: Listening to VoicesCultural AnthropologyLinguistic AnthropologyArchaeologyApplied AnthropologyMedical AnthropologyThe Uses of AnthropologyIn Their Own Words: What Can You Learn from an Anthropology Major?Module 1: Anthropology, Science, and Storytelling- Scientific and Nonscientific Explanations- Some Key Scientific Concepts2. Why Is Evolution Important to Anthropologists?What Is Evolutionary Theory?What Material Evidence Is There for Evolution?Pre-Darwinian Views of the Natural WorldEssentialismThe Great Chain of BeingCatastrophism and UniformitarianismTransformational EvolutionWhat Is Natural Selection?Population ThinkingNatural Selection in ActionHow Did Biologists Learn about Genes?Mendel's ExperimentsThe Emergence of GeneticsWhat Are the Basics of Contemporary Genetics?Genes and TraitsAnthropology in Everyday Life: Investigating Human-Rights Violations and Identifying RemainsMutationDNA and the Genome"There Is No 'Race Memory' in Biology, Only in Books"Genotype, Phenotype, and the Norm of ReactionIn Their Own Words: How Living Organisms Construct Their EnvironmentsWhat Does Evolution Mean?3. What Can Evolutionary Theory Tell Us about Human Variation?What Is Microevolution?The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis and Its LegacyThe Molecularization of Race?The Four Evolutionary ProcessesIn Their Own Words: DNA Tests Find Branches but Few RootsMicroevolution and Patterns of Human VariationAdaptation and Human VariationPhenotype, Environment, and CultureWhat Is Macroevolution?Can We Predict the Future of Human Evolution?Module 2: Dating Methods in Paleoanthropology and Archaeology- Relative Dating Methods- Numerical Dating Methods- Modeling Prehistoric Climates4. What Can the Study of Primates Tell Us about Human Beings?What Are Primates?How Do Biologists Classify Primates?How Many Categories of Living Primates Are There?StrepsirrhinesHaplorhinesIn Their Own Words: The Future of Primate BiodiversityWhat is Ethnoprimatology?Are There Patterns in Primate Evolution?In Their Own Words: Chimpanzee TourismHow do Paleoanthropologists Reconstruct Primate Evolutionary History?Primates of the PaleocenePrimates of the EocenePrimates of the OligocenePrimates of the Miocene5. What Can the Fossil Record Tell Us about Human Origins?What Is Hominin Evolution?Who Were the First Hominins (6-3 mya)?The Origin of BipedalismIn Their Own Words: Finding FossilsChanges in Hominin DentitionWho Were the Later Australopiths (3-1.5 mya)?How Many Species of Australopith Were There?How Can Anthropologists Explain the Human Transition?What Do We Know about Early Homo (2.4-1.5 mya)?Expansion of the Australopith BrainHow Many Species of Early Homo Were There?Earliest Evidence of Culture: Stone Tools of the Oldowan TraditionWho Was Homo Erectus (1.8-1.7 mya to 0.5-0.4 mya)?Morphological Traits of H. erectusThe Culture of H. erectusH. erectus the HunterWhat Happened to H. Erectus?How Did Homo Sapiens Evolve?What Is the Fossil Evidence for the Transition to Modern H. sapiens?Where Did Modern H. sapiens Come From?Who Were the Neandertals (130,000-35,000 Years Ago)?What Do We Know About Middle Paleolithic/Middle Stone Age Culture?In Their Own Words: Bad Hair Days in the Paleolithic: Modern (Re)Constructions of the Cave ManDid Neandertals Hunt?What Do We Know About Anatomically Modern Humans (200,000 Years Ago to Present)?What Can Genetics Tell Us About Modern Human Origins?What Do We Know About the Upper Paleolithic/Late Stone Age? (40,000?-12,000 Years Ago)What Happened to the Neandertals?How Many Kinds of Upper Paleolithic/Late Stone Age Cultures Were There?In Their Own Words: Women's Art in the Upper Paleolithic?Where Did Modern H. Sapiens Migrate in Late Pleistocene Times?Eastern Asia and SiberiaThe AmericasAustralasiaTwo Million Years of Human Evolution6. How Do We Know about the Human Past?What Is Archaeology?SurveysArchaeological ExcavationHow Do Archaeologists Interpret the Past?Subsistence StrategiesBands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, and StatesWhose Past Is It?How Is the Past Being Plundered?What Are the Critical Issues in Contemporary Archaeology?Archaeology and GenderCollaborative Approaches to Studying the PastAnthropology in Everyday Life: Archaeology as a Tool of Civic EngagementCosmopolitan Archaeologies7. Why Did Humans Settle Down, Build Cities, and Establish States?How Is the Human Imagination Entangled with the Material World?Is Plant Cultivation a Form of Niche Construction?How do Anthropologists Explain the Origins of Animal Domestication?Was There Only One Motor of Domestication?How Did Domestication, Cultivation, and Sedentism Begin in Southwest Asia?Natufian Social OrganizationAnthropology in Everyday Life: Catal Hoyuk in the Twenty-First CenturyNatufian SubsistenceDomestication Elsewhere in the WorldWhat Were the Consequences of Domestication and Sedentism?In Their Own Words: The Food RevolutionHow Do Anthropologists Define Social Complexity?Why Is It Incorrect To Describe Foraging Societies as "Simple?"What Is the Archaeological Evidence for Social Complexity?Why Did Stratification Begin?How Can Anthropologists Explain the Rise of Complex Societies?In Their Own Words: The Ecological Consequences of Social ComplexityAndean Civilization8. Why Is the Concept of Culture Important?How Do Anthropologists Define Culture?In Their Own Words: The Paradox of EthnocentrismCulture, History, and Human AgencyIn Their Own Words: Culture and FreedomIn Their Own Words: Human-Rights Law and the Demonization of CultureWhy Do Cultural Differences Matter?What Is Ethnocentrism?Is It Possible to Avoid Ethnocentric Bias?What Is Cultural Relativism?How Can Cultural Relativity Improve Our Understanding of Controversial Cultural Practices?Genital Cutting, Gender, and Human RightsGenital Cutting as a Valued RitualCulture and Moral ReasoningDid Their Culture Make Them Do It?Does Culture Explain Everything?Culture Change and Cultural AuthenticityThe Promise of the Anthropological PerspectiveModule 3: On Ethnographic Methods- A Meeting of Cultural Traditions- Single-Sited Fieldwork- Multisited Fieldwork- Collecting and Interpreting Data- The Dialectic of Fieldwork: Interpretation and Translation- Interpreting Actions and Ideas- The Dialectic of Fieldwork: An Example- The Effects of Fieldwork- The Production of Anthropological Knowledge- Anthropological Knowledge as Open-Ended9. Why Is Understanding Human Language Important?How Are Language and Culture Related?How Do People Talk about Experience?In Their Own Words: Cultural TranslationWhat Makes Human Language Distinctive?What Does It Mean to "Learn" a Language?How Does Context Affect Language?How Does Language Affect How We See the World?Pragmatics: How Do We Study Language in Contexts of Use?EthnopragmaticsWhat Happens When Languages Come into Contact?What Is the Difference between a Pidgin and a Creole?How Is Meaning Negotiated?What Is Linguistic Inequality?What Are Language Habits of African Americans?In Their Own Words: Varieties of African American EnglishWhat Is Language Ideology?Anthropology in Everyday Life: Language RevitalizationWhat Is Lost if a Language Dies?How Are Language and Truth Connected?In Their Own Words: The Madness of HungerAnthropology in Everyday Life: Lead Poisoning among Mexican American ChildrenModule 4: Components of Language- Phonology: Sounds- Morphology: Word Structure- Syntax: Sentence Structure- Semantics: Meaning10. How Do We Make Meaning?What Is Play?What Do We Think about Play?What Are Some Effects of Play?What Is Art?Is There a Definition of Art?"But Is It Art?"In Their Own Words: Tango"She's Fake": Art and AuthenticityHow Does Hip-Hope Become Japanese?What Is Myth?How Does Myth Reflect - and Shape - Society?Do Myths Help Us Think?What Is Ritual?How Can Ritual Be Defined?How Is Ritual Expressed in Action?What Are Rites of Passage?In Their Own Words: Video in the VillagesHow Are Play and Ritual Complementary?How Are Worldview and Symbolic Practice Related?What Is Religion?How Do People Communicate in Religion?How Are Religion and Social Organization Related?Worldviews in Operation: Two Case StudiesCoping with Misfortune: Witchcraft, Oracles, and Magic among the AzandeAre There Patterns of Witchcraft Accusation?Coping with Misfortune: Listening for God among Contemporary Evangelicals in the U.S.In Their Own Words: For All Those Who Were Indian in a Former Life 306Maintaining and Changing a WorldviewHow Do People Cope with Change?In Their Own Words: Custom and ConfrontationHow Are Worldviews Used as Instruments of Power?11. Why Do Anthropologists Study Economic Relations?How Do Anthropologists Study Economic Relations?What Are the Connections between Culture and Livelihood?How Do Anthropologists Study Production, Distribution, and Consumption?How Are Goods Distributed and Exchanged?What Are Modes of Exchange?Does Production Drive Economic Activities?In Their Own Words: "So Much Work, So Much Tragedy . . . and for What?"LaborModes of ProductionAnthropology in Everyday Life: Producing Sorghum and Millet in Honduras and the SudanIn Their Own Words: Solidarity ForeverWhat Is the Role of Conflict in Material Life?Why Do People Consume What They Do?The Internal Explanation: Malinowski and Basic Human NeedsThe External Explanation: Cultural EcologyIn Their Own Words: Questioning CollapseHow Is Consumption Culturally Patterned?How Is Consumption Being Studied Today?In Their Own Words: Fake Masks and Faux ModernityThe Anthropology of Food and Nutrition12. How Do Anthropologists Study Political Relations?How Are Culture and Politics Related?How Do Anthropologists Study Politics?CoercionPower and National Identity: A Case StudyCan Governmentality Be Eluded?Anthropology in Everyday Life: Anthropology and AdvertisingIn Their Own Words: Reforming the Crow ConstitutionHow Are Politics, Gender, and Kinship Related?How Are Immigration and Politics Related in the New Europe?Hidden Transcripts and the Power of ReflectionIn Their Own Words: Protesters Gird for Long Fight over Opening Peru's AmazonAnthropology in Everyday Life: Human Terrain Teams and Anthropological Ethics13. Where Do Our Relatives Come From and Why Do They Matter?What Is Kinship?Sex, Gender, and KinshipWhat Is the Role of Descent in Kinship?What Roles Do Lineages Play in Descent?Lineage MembershipPatrilineagesWhat Are Matrilineages?In Their Own Words: Outside Work, Women, and BridewealthWhat Are Kinship Terminologies?What Criteria Are Used for Making Kinship Distinctions?What Is Adoption?Adoption in Highland EcuadorEuropean American Kinship and New Reproductive TechnologiesHow Does Organ Transplantation Create New Relatives?MarriageToward a Definition of MarriageWoman Marriage and Ghost Marriage among the NuerWhy Is Marriage a Social Process?Patterns of Residence after MarriageSingle and Plural SpousesIn Their Own Words: Two Cheers for Gay MarriageHow Is Marriage an Economic Exchange?What Is a Family?In Their Own Words: Dowry Too High. Lose Bride and Go to JailWhat Is the Nuclear Family?What Is the Polygynous Family?Extended and Joint FamiliesIn Their Own Words: Law, Custom, and Crimes against WomenHow Are Families Transformed over Time?Divorce and RemarriageHow Does International Migration Affect the Family?Families by ChoiceAnthropology in Everyday Life: Caring for Infibulated Women Giving Birth in NorwayIn Their Own Words: Why Migrant Women Feed Their Husbands TamalesFriendshipHow Are Sexual Practices Organized?Ranges of Heterosexual PracticesOther Sexual PracticesSexuality and Power14. What Can Anthropology Tell Us about Social Inequality?GenderIn Their Own Words: The Consequences of Being a WomanClassCasteCaste in IndiaIn Their Own Words: Burakumin: Overcoming Hidden Discrimination in JapanIn Their Own Words: As Economic Turmoil Mounts, So Do Attacks on Hungary's GypsiesRaceColorism in NicaraguaIn Their Own Words: On the Butt Size of Barbie and Shani: Dolls and Race in the United StatesEthnicityIn Their Own Words: The Politics of EthnicityNation and NationalismAnthropology in Everyday Life: Anthropology and DemocracyAustralian NationalismNaturalizing DiscoursesThe Paradox of Essentialized IdentitiesNation Building in a Postcolonial World: The Example of FijiNationalism and Its Dangers15. How Is Anthropology Applied in the Field of Medicine?What Is Medical Anthropology?In Their Own Words: American Premenstrual SyndromeWhat Makes Medical Anthropology "Biocultural"?How Do People with Different Cultures Understand the Causes of Sickness and Health?Kinds of SelvesDecentered Selves on the InternetSelf and SubjectivitySubjectivity, Trauma, and Structural ViolenceHow Are Human Sickness and Health Shaped by the Global Capitalist Economy?In Their Own Words: Ethical Dilemmas and DecisionsHealth, Human Reproduction, and Global CapitalismMedical Anthropology and HIV/AIDSThe Future of Medical Anthropology16. What Can Anthropology Tell Us about Globalization?Cultural Imperialism or Cultural Hybridity?In Their Own Words: Slumdog TourismWhat is Cultural Imperialism?What is Cultural Hybridity?In Their Own Words: How Sushi Went GlobalAre There Limits to Cultural Hybridity?How Does Globalization Affect the Nation State?In Their Own Words: Cofan: Story of the Forest People and the OutsidersAre Global Flows Undermining Nation-States?Migration, Transborder Identities, and Long-Distance NationalismHow Can Citizenship Be Flexible?Are Human Rights Universal?Rights versus Culture?Rights to Culture?Are Rights Part of Culture?Anthropology in Everyday Life: Anthropology and Indigenous RightsHow Can Culture Help in Thinking about Rights?What is the Relationship Between Human Rights and Humanitarianism?Can We Be at Home in a Global World?What is Cosmopolitanism?What is Friction?What is Border Thinking?In Their Own Words: The Anthropological VoiceWhy Study Anthropology?Module 5: Background to the Global Political Economy of the Twenty-First Century- What Happened to the Global Economy after the Cold War?- Cultural Processes in a Global World

Editorial Reviews

"Lavenda and Schultz's Anthropology is much more accessible and more clearly written than other texts for non-science majors. Their prose is accessible and engaging." --Stephen D. Glazier, University of Nebraska