For the last four decades, Andre Beteille's work has had a fundamental impact on Indian sociology. While drawing from universal theoretical perspectives, Beteille has adapted them to empirical realities in India. This collection brings together 19 of the most seminal writings of Beteille,selected and introduced by Dipankar Gupta. The topics of the essays range from caste, class, and religion to methodological issues in the social sciences, equality, and civil society. The overarching theme with which these essays are concerned is how a society may ensure equality of opportunitywithout making grave compromises to the well-being of civil society institutions.