Applied Hydrogeology by C.W. FetterApplied Hydrogeology by C.W. Fetter

Applied Hydrogeology

byC.W. Fetter

Hardcover | November 16, 2000

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This best selling book, Applied Hydrogeology gives readers a balanced examination of all facets of hydrogeology. It text stresses the application of mathematics to problem solving rather than derivation of theory. It provides a balance between physical and chemical hydrogeology. Numerous case studies cultivate reader understanding of the occurrence and movement of ground water in a variety of geologic settings. This valuable reference includes five new case histories: The Dakota Aquifer, Fractures Sedimentary Rocks—Newark basin, Faults as Aquifer Boundaries, Desert Hydrology—Azraq basin, Jordan. Uses the Internet to obtain hydrogeologic data and information. Includes well-developed case studies in most of the chapters. Contains tables covering various functions, unit conversions, and additional data for solving well hydraulics, water chemistry, and contaminant transport problems. For readers interested in advanced hydrology, groundwater hydrology, hydrogeology, and civil engineering.

PREFACE Hydrogeology is now considered to be a core course in the curriculum of undergraduate geology programs as well as many fields of engineering. There is ongoing demand for persons with training in hydrogeology by consulting organizations, state and federal regulatory agencies, and industrial firms. Most of the employment in h...
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Title:Applied HydrogeologyFormat:HardcoverDimensions:598 pages, 10.2 × 8.3 × 1.4 inPublished:November 16, 2000Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0130882399

ISBN - 13:9780130882394

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From the Author

PREFACE Hydrogeology is now considered to be a core course in the curriculum of undergraduate geology programs as well as many fields of engineering. There is ongoing demand for persons with training in hydrogeology by consulting organizations, state and federal regulatory agencies, and industrial firms. Most of the employment in hydrogeology is in the environmental area. This is a book that will help prepare students for either a career in hydrogeology or in other areas of environmental science and engineering where a strong background in hydrogeology is needed. Applied Hydrogeology is intended as a textbook for an introductory course in hydrogeology taught either at the advanced undergraduate level, or as a duallevel undergraduate/graduate course. It is also useful in helping individuals who are preparing to take state examinations for professional registration as a hydrologist or hydrogeologist. It can be found as a reference book in the personal library of many working professionals. The reader is expected to have a working knowledge of college algebra, and calculus is helpful, but not necessary, for practical understanding of the material. A background in college chemistry is necessary to understand the chapter on water chemistry. The book stresses the application of mathematics to problemsolving rather than the derivation of theory. To this end you will find many example problems with stepbystep solutions. Case studies in many chapters enhance understanding of the occurrence and movement of ground water in a variety of geological settings. A glossary of hydrogeological terms makes this book a valuable reference. The fourth edition contains new case studies and endofchapter problems. In most cases the problems are paired. An oddnumbered problem will have the answer given in a section in the back of the book, followed by an evennumbered problem without the answer. Stepbystep solutions to the oddnumbered problems can also be found at the Applied Hydrogeology web page: http://www.appliedhydrogeology.com. Many chapters in the fourth edition also contain a section called Analysis, with nonnumerical questions. The use of spreadsheet programs, such as Microsoft® Excel, in hydrogeology is introduced here. Included with the text are working student versions of three computer programs that are used by groundwater professionals. They have been furnished free of charge by the software publishers. No technical support is furnished for these programs, either by the author or the software publisher. However, they are easy to use and come with tutorials and documentation on the CDROM. The following reviewers provided helpful suggestions for the fourth edition: Gary S. Johnson, University of Idaho; Larry Murdoch, Clemson University; Claude Epstein, Richard Stockton College of New Jersey; David L. Brown, California State University at Chico; F. Edwin Harvey, University of Nebraska at Lincoln; Edward L. Shuster, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Willis D. Weight, Montana Tech. of the University of Montana; Larry D. McKay, University of Tennessee at Knoxville; Laura L. Sanders, Northwestern Illinois University; Jean Hoff, St. Cloud State University; and Jim Butler, Kansas Geological Survey. I am grateful to Larry Murdoch and Rex Hodges of Clemson University for introducing me to the use of spreadsheet groundwater flow models. I would especially like to thank Glenn Duffield of Hydrosolve, Inc. for furnishing the student version of AQTESOLV, Pat Delaney of Waterloo Hydrogeologic Inc. for furnishing the student version of Visual MODFLOW and Kirk Hemker for the use of FLOWNETLT. Todd Rayne of Hamilton College has prepared the solution manual for the problems, which course instructors can request from their Prentice Hall sales representative. Patrick Lynch, Senior Editor for Geology at Prentice Hall, has been very supportive through the course of my preparation f this revision. C.W. Fetter C.W. Fetter, Jr. Associates and Emeritus Professor of Hydrogeology University of Wisconsin Oshkosh

Read from the Book

PREFACE Hydrogeology is now considered to be a core course in the curriculum of undergraduate geology programs as well as many fields of engineering. There is ongoing demand for persons with training in hydrogeology by consulting organizations, state and federal regulatory agencies, and industrial firms. Most of the employment in hydrogeology is in the environmental area. This is a book that will help prepare students for either a career in hydrogeology or in other areas of environmental science and engineering where a strong background in hydrogeology is needed. Applied Hydrogeology is intended as a textbook for an introductory course in hydrogeology taught either at the advanced undergraduate level, or as a dual-level undergraduate/graduate course. It is also useful in helping individuals who are preparing to take state examinations for professional registration as a hydrologist or hydrogeologist. It can be found as a reference book in the personal library of many working professionals. The reader is expected to have a working knowledge of college algebra, and calculus is helpful, but not necessary, for practical understanding of the material. A background in college chemistry is necessary to understand the chapter on water chemistry. The book stresses the application of mathematics to problem-solving rather than the derivation of theory. To this end you will find many example problems with step-by-step solutions. Case studies in many chapters enhance understanding of the occurrence and movement of ground water in a variety of geological settings. A glossary of hydrogeological terms makes this book a valuable reference. The fourth edition contains new case studies and end-of-chapter problems. In most cases the problems are paired. An odd-numbered problem will have the answer given in a section in the back of the book, followed by an even-numbered problem without the answer. Step-by-step solutions to the odd-numbered problems can also be found at the Applied Hydrogeology web page: http://www.appliedhydrogeology.com. Many chapters in the fourth edition also contain a section called Analysis, with non-numerical questions. The use of spreadsheet programs, such as Microsoft® Excel, in hydrogeology is introduced here. Included with the text are working student versions of three computer programs that are used by ground-water professionals. They have been furnished free of charge by the software publishers. No technical support is furnished for these programs, either by the author or the software publisher. However, they are easy to use and come with tutorials and documentation on the CD-ROM. The following reviewers provided helpful suggestions for the fourth edition: Gary S. Johnson, University of Idaho; Larry Murdoch, Clemson University; Claude Epstein, Richard Stockton College of New Jersey; David L. Brown, California State University at Chico; F. Edwin Harvey, University of Nebraska at Lincoln; Edward L. Shuster, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Willis D. Weight, Montana Tech. of the University of Montana; Larry D. McKay, University of Tennessee at Knoxville; Laura L. Sanders, Northwestern Illinois University; Jean Hoff, St. Cloud State University; and Jim Butler, Kansas Geological Survey. I am grateful to Larry Murdoch and Rex Hodges of Clemson University for introducing me to the use of spreadsheet ground-water flow models. I would especially like to thank Glenn Duffield of Hydrosolve, Inc. for furnishing the student version of AQTESOLV, Pat Delaney of Waterloo Hydrogeologic Inc. for furnishing the student version of Visual MODFLOW and Kirk Hemker for the use of FLOWNETLT. Todd Rayne of Hamilton College has prepared the solution manual for the problems, which course instructors can request from their Prentice Hall sales representative. Patrick Lynch, Senior Editor for Geology at Prentice Hall, has been very supportive through the course of my preparation f this revision. C.W. Fetter C.W. Fetter, Jr. Associates and Emeritus Professor of Hydrogeology University of Wisconsin Oshkosh

Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with Notation, Analysis, and Problems.)

1. Water.

Water. Hydrology and Hydrogeology. The Hydrologic Cycle. Energy Transformations. The Hydrologic Equation. Hydrogeologists. Applied Hydrogeology. The Business of Hydrogeology (What Do Hydrogeologists Do All Day?) Sources of Hydrogeological Information. American Society of Testing and Materials Standards. Working the Problems. Solving Problems Using Spreadsheets.



2. Elements of the Hydrologic Cycle.

Evaporation. Transpiration. Evapotranspiration. Condensation. Formation of Precipitation. Measurement of Precipitation and Snow. Effective Depth of Precipitation. Events during Precipitation. Events During Precipitation. Stream Hydrographs. Rainfall-Runoff Relationships. Duration Curves. Determining Ground-Water Recharge from Baseflow. Measurement of Streamflow. Manning Equation.



3. Properties of Aquifers.

Matter and Energy (A Brief Review of Physics). Porosity of Earth Materials. Specific Yield. Hydraulic Conductivity of Earth Materials. Permeameters. Water Table. Aquifers. Water-Table and Potentiometric Surface Maps. Aquifer Characteristics. Compressibility and Effective Stress. Homogeneity and Isotropy. Gradient of the Potentiometric Surface.



4. Principles of Ground-Water Flow.

Introduction. Mechanical Energy. Hydraulic Head. Head in Water of Variable Density. Force Potential and Hydraulic Head. Darcy's Law. Equations of Ground-Water Flow. Solution of Flow Equations. Gradient of Hydraulic Head. Relationship of Ground-Water-Flow Direction to Grad h. Flow Lines and Flow Nets. Refraction of Flow Lines. Steady Flow in a Confined Aquifer. Steady Flow in an Unconfined Aquifer.



5. Ground-Water Flow to Wells.

Introduction. Basic Assumptions. Radial Flow. Computing Drawdown Caused by a Pumping Well. Determining Aquifer Parameters from Time-Drawdown Data. Slug Tests. Estimating Aquifer Transmissivity from Specific Capacity Data. Intersecting Pumping Cones and Well Interference. Effect of Hydrogeologic Boundaries. Aquifer-Test Design.



6. Soil Moisture and Ground-Water Recharge.

Introduction. Porosity and Water Content of Soil. Capillarity and the Capillary Fringe. Pore-Water Tension in the Vadose Zone. Soil Water. Theory of Unsaturated Flow. Water-Table Recharge.



7. Regional Ground-Water Flow.

Introduction. Steady Regional Ground-Water Flow in Unconfined Aquifers. Transient Flow in Regional Ground-Water Systems. Noncyclical Ground Water. Springs. Geology of Regional Flow Systems. Interactions of Ground Water and Lakes or Wetlands and Streams.



8. Geology of Ground-Water Occurrence.

Introduction. Unconsolidated Aquifers. Lithified Sedimentary Rocks. Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks. Ground Water in Permafrost Regions. Ground Water in Desert Areas. Coastal-Plain Aquifers. Fresh-Water-Saline-Water Relations. Tidal Effects. Ground-Water Regions of the United States.



9. Water Chemistry.

Introduction. Units of Measurement. Types of Chemical Reactions in Water. Law of Mass Action. Common-Ion Effect. Chemical Activities. Ionization Constant of Water and Weak Acids. Carbonate Equilibrium. Thermodynamic Relationships. Oxidation Potential. Ion Exchange. Isotope Hydrology. Major Ion Chemistry. Presentation of Results of Chemical Analyses.



10. Water Quality and Ground-Water Contamination.

Introduction. Water-Quality Standards. Collection of Water Samples. Ground-Water Monitoring. Vadose-Zone Monitoring. Mass Transport of Solutes. Ground-Water Contamination. Ground-Water Restoration. Case History: Ground-Water Contamination at a Superfund Site. Capture-Zone Analysis.



11. Ground-Water Development and Management.

Introduction. Dynamic Equilibrium in Natural Aquifers. Ground-Water Budgets. Management Potential of Aquifers. Paradox of Safe Yield. Water Law. Artificial Recharge. Protection of Water Quality in Aquifers. Ground-Water Mining and Cyclic Storage. Conjunctive Use of Ground and Surface Water. Global Water Issues.



12. Field Methods.

Introduction. Fracture-Trace Analysis. Surficial Methods of Geophysical Investigations. Geophysical Well Logging. Hydrogeologic Site Evaluations. Responsibilities of the Field Hydrogeologist. Project Reports.



13. Ground-Water Models.

Introduction. Applications of Ground-Water Models. Data Requirements for Models. Finite-Difference Models. Finite-Element Models. Use of Published Models. MODFLOW Basics. Visual MODFLOW. Geographical Information Systems.



Appendices.


Glossary.


Answers.


References.


Index.