Techniques of performing applied mineralogy investigations, and applications and capabilities of recently developed instruments for measuring mineral properties are explored in this book intended for practicing applied mineralogists, students in mineralogy and metallurgy, and mineral processing engineers. The benefits of applied mineralogy are presented by using in-depth applied mineralogy studies on base metal ores, gold ores, porphyry copper ores, iron ores and industrial minerals as examples. The chapter on base metal ores includes a discussion on the effects of liberation, particle sizes and surfaces coatings of Pb, Cu, Fe, Ca and So4- on the recoveries of sphalerite, galena and chalcopyrite. The chapter on gold discusses various methods of determining the quantities of gold in different minerals, including 'invisible' gold in pyrite and arsenopyrite, so that a balance of the distribution of gold among the minerals can be calculated. This book also discusses the roles of pyrite, oxygen, moisture and bacterial (thiobacillus ferrooxidans) on reactions that produce acidic drainage from tailings piles, and summarizes currently used and proposed methods of remediation of acidic drainage.