Applied Polymer Light Microscopy by Derek A. HemsleyApplied Polymer Light Microscopy by Derek A. Hemsley

Applied Polymer Light Microscopy

byDerek A. Hemsley

Paperback | March 20, 2012

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Synthetic polymers make excellent specimens for light microscopy. Despite this, the use of the technique, at least in its advanced forms, is not so widespread as might be expected. Although reliable and relevant data are difficult to find and quantify, it seems that in other fields of materials science and technology there is a greater readiness to tum to the microscope in research, in industrial problem solving, or for quality assessment and control. It also seems that the reasons for the present situation are partly historical, partly the result of the structure of the plastics and rubber industries, and partly the education and training background of senior staff who tend to be chemistry or engineering based. In neither field does light microscopy feature strongly in the basic training. The primary aim of this book is to provide some insight into the range oflight microscopy techniques applicable to polymeric specimens, and to highlight typical applications to commercial polymers and polymer products. Where appropriate, the optical techniques involved are discussed in some detail. However, it has not been the intention to produce a light microscopy textbook dealing with the principles and design of the basic instrument. Many such texts are available, and selected examples are cited in the reference list at the end of most chapters.
Title:Applied Polymer Light MicroscopyFormat:PaperbackDimensions:282 pages, 22.9 × 15.2 × 1.73 inPublished:March 20, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9401174768

ISBN - 13:9789401174763

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Table of Contents

1 Specimen Preparation.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Initial Approach to Preparing the Specimen.- 1.3 Area of the Specimen.- 1.4 Surfaces.- 1.5 Sectioning (Sectional Slices).- 1.6 Melt Pressings.- 1.7 Staining.- 1.8 Final Comments.- 2 Basic Light Microscopy and the Phase Contrast Microscope.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Synthetic Polymers as Specimens for Light Microscopy.- 2.3 Light versus Electron Microscopy of Polymers.- 2.4 Basic Light Microscopy.- 2.5 Applications for Common Light Microscopy.- 2.6 Phase Contrast Microscopy ..- 2.7 Applications for Phase Contrast Microscopy.- 2.8 Dark Ground Microscopy.- References.- 3 Polarized Light: Theory and Measurements.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Light and Its Interaction with Matter.- 3.3 Elliptically and Circularly Polarized Light.- 3.4 The Uniaxial Indicatrix.- 3.5 The Biaxial Indicatrix.- 3.6 Methods of Producing Polarized Light.- 3.7 Types of Birefringence.- 3.8 The Passage of Polarized Light through Thin Birefringent Plates.- 3.9 Polarization Colours.- 3.10 Relation between Orientation and Birefringence.- 3.11 The Polarizing Microscope.- 3.12 Measurement of Optical Path Difference.- 3.13 Compensators.- 3.14 Dispersion of Birefringence.- 3.15 Spectrophotometric Method.- 3.16 The Wedge Method.- 3.17 Use of the Abbé Refractometer.- References.- 4 Polarized Light: Qualitative Microscopy.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Spherulites.- 4.3 Theory of Spherulitic Crystallization.- 4.4 Different Types of Spherulite.- 4.5 Spherulitic Forms of Polypropylene.- 4.6 Effect of Processing on Spherulites.- 4.7 Small Angle Light Scattering.- 4.8 Molecular Orientation.- References.- 5 Modulation Contrast and Differential Interference Contrast Techniques.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 General Principles.- 5.3 The Modulation Contrast System.- 5.4 Differential Interference Contrast.- 5.5 Adjusting the Contrast Systems.- 5.6 Comparison with the Phase Contrast Microscope.- 5.7 Reflected Light Work.- 5.8 Image Interpretation.- 5.9 Applications to Polymers.- References.- 6 Interference Microscopy of Polymers.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 The Basic Principles of Quantitative Microinterferometry.- 6.3 Reflected Light Applications.- 6.4 Interpretation of Surface Interferograms.- 6.5 Some Reflected Light Systems Applicable to Polymers.- 6.6 Transmitted Light Interference Microscopy.- 6.7 Transmitted Light Systems.- 6.8 Compensators.- References.- 7 Ultraviolet and Fluorescence Microscopy.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Equipment and Techniques.- 7.3 Applications to Non-polymer Materials.- 7.4 Non-Microscopic Applications of Fluorescence from Polymers.- 7.5 Applications of UV Microscopy to Synthetic Polymers.- References.