This book deals with the characterization of extensions of number fields in terms of the decomposition of prime ideals, and with the group-theoretic questions arising from this number-theoretic problem. One special aspect of this question is the equality of Dedekind zeta functions ofdifferent number fields. This is an established problem which was solved for abelian extensions by class field theory, but which was only studied in detail in its general form from around 1970. The basis for the new results was a fruitful exchange between number theory and group theory. Some ofthe outstanidng results are based on the complete classification of all finite simple groups. This book reports on the great progress achieved in this period. It allows access to the new developments in this part of algebraic number theory and contains a unique blend of number theory and grouptheory. The results appear for the first time in a monograph and they partially extend the published literature.