This book examines the theories of meaning or artha. It discusses approaches in different schools of thought-Grammarian, Mimamsika, Buddhist, early Naiyayika, Navya Naiyayika, and Vedantin-highlighting the significant relationship between 'word' and 'meaning/knowing/ knowledge'. The authorprobes and explores the tension between tenets of the Navya-Nyaya school and elucidates on the important changes brought about by the introduction of modes of thought in the theory of meaning. An important contribution to the philosophy of language, this volume demonstrates that classical Indiantheory of language can inform and be informed by contemporary philosophy. This book will interest students and scholars of philosophy, history, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics.