Assessment Procedures For Counselors And Helping Professionals

Hardcover | May 28, 2015

byRobert J. Drummond, Carl J. Sheperis, Karyn D. Jones

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Since its first publication in 1988, Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals has become a classic among assessment textbooks designed specifically for aspiring counselors. Now in its Eighth Edition the text includes extensive changes to content and updating throughout, while maintaining its popular, easy-to-read format and continuing emphasis on assessment information that is most useful and relevant for school counselors, marriage and family therapists, mental health counselors, and other helping professionals. Throughout the text, readers learn the essential topics; see clearly how the elements of assessment interact; apply the material to the major instruments used in counseling; reinforce learning through discussion questions and activities; and get invaluable information and examples about widely used assessment instruments in order to become familiar with these well-known tests.

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From the Publisher

Since its first publication in 1988, Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals has become a classic among assessment textbooks designed specifically for aspiring counselors. Now in its Eighth Edition the text includes extensive changes to content and updating throughout, while maintaining its popular, easy-to-read ...

From the Jacket

From Reviews of the Book:   “This text gives a good overview of the issues involved for test development and the types of settings in which tests are used.  While it's geared toward counselors, I have felt that there is good applicability for graduate students in Ed Psych and in Higher Ed Admin . . . . I also REALLY liked the suppl...

Dr. Robert Drummond passed away on March 14, 2005. He was a retired professor and counselor educator at the University of North Florida for 20 years. He was foremost in the field of assessment, and he specialized in educational and psychological testing, career development, models for evaluation, educational research, and personality ...

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Format:HardcoverDimensions:464 pages, 9.2 × 7.3 × 0.9 inPublished:May 28, 2015Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:013285063X

ISBN - 13:9780132850636

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Table of Contents

BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART ONE  Principles and Foundations of Psychological and Educational Assessment
Chapter 1     Introduction to Assessment  1
Chapter 2     Methods and Sources of Assessment Information  20
Chapter 3     Statistical Concepts  46
Chapter 4     Understanding Assessment Scores  70
Chapter 5     Reliability/Precision  91
Chapter 6     Validity  110
Chapter 7     Selecting, Administering, Scoring, and Interpreting Assessment Results  130

PART TWO  Overview of Assessment Areas
Chapter 8     Assessment of Intelligence and General Ability  158
Chapter 9     Assessment of Achievement  195
Chapter 10    Assessment of Aptitude  223
Chapter 11    Career and Employment Assessment  243
Chapter 12    Personality Assessment  271

PART THREE  Applications and Issues Related to Assessment
Chapter 13    Clinical Assessment  303
Chapter 14    Assessment in Education  332
Chapter 15    Assessment Issues with Diverse Populations  356
Chapter 16    Communicating Assessment Results  375
Chapter 17    Ethical and Legal Issues in Assessment  395
 
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART ONE Principles and Foundations of Psychological and Educational Assessment
Chapter 1 Introduction to Assessment  1

What Is Assessment?  2
                The Purposes of Assessment  3
                Multiple Methods and Multiple Sources  5
                The Assessment Process  7
                Competencies Required for Assessment  9
Historical Perspectives  11

Assessment and Technology  15
                Computer-based Assessment  15
                Internet-based Assessment  16
Controversial Issues in Assessment  17
Summary 17 • Moving Forward 18 • Questions for Discussion 18 • Suggested Activities 18  • Reference 18
Chapter 2 Methods and Sources of Assessment Information  20
Assessment Methods and Sources  20
                Formal and Informal Assessment Instruments and Strategies  22
The Initial Interview  23
                Degrees of Structure Interviews  24
                Interview Guidelines  26

Tests  27
                Categories of Tests  29
Observation  34
                Formal and Informal Observation   35

                Direct and Indirect Observation  35

                Natural and Contrived Settings  36
                Unobtrusive and Participant Observation  36
                Methods of Recording Observations  36
                Self-monitoring  41
Collateral Sources   41
Summary  43  •  Questions for Discussion  43  • Suggested Activities  43  •  References  44
Chapter 3 Statistical Concepts 46
Statistical Concepts for Assessment  46
Scales of Measurement  48
                Nominal Scale  48
                Ordinal Scale  49
                Interval Scale  49
                Ratio Scale  50
Describing Scores  50
                Frequency Distributions  50

                Measures of Central Tendency  55

                Measures of Variability  57
                The Normal Curve  60
                Measures of Relationship  61
Summary  68   • Questions for Discussion 68  • Suggested Activities 68   • References   69
Chapter 4 Understanding Assessment Scores 70
Assessment Scores  70
Criterion-Referenced Scores  71
Norm-Referenced Scores  72
                Norm Group  73
                Types of Norm-Referenced Scores  75
Qualitative Assessment     84
Tables and Profiles  85
Norm-Referenced, Criterion-Referenced, or Both?   87

Summary  89  • Questions for Discussion 89 • Suggested Activities 89  • References 90
Chapter 5 Reliability/Precision 91
Reliability  92
                Measurement Error  93
                Sources of Measurement Error  93
Methods of Estimating Reliability/Precision   95
                Test-Retest  97
                Alternate Form  98
                Internal Consistency Reliability  99
                Interrater Reliability  102
                Selecting a Reliability Coefficient  103

                Evaluating Reliability Coefficients  103

                Standard Error of Measurement  104
                Confidence Intervals  106
                Increasing reliability/precision  107
Summary 108 • Questions for Discussion 108 • Suggested Activities 108 • References 109
Chapter 6 Validity 110
The Nature of Validity  111

                Revisiting Construct  112

                Threats to Validity  112
                Validity and Reliability/Precision  113
Sources of Validity Evidence  114
                Test Content Validity Evidence 114

                Evidence Based on Internal Structure  116

                Relations to Other Variables Evidence  118

                Evidence of Homogeneity  121
                Convergent and Discriminant Evidence  121

                Evidence Based On Consequences of Testing  125

                Evidence Based on Response Processes   126
Summary 126 • Questions for Discussion  127 • Suggested Activities 127 • References 128
Chapter 7 Selecting, Administering, Scoring, and Interpreting Assessment Results 130
Selecting Assessment Instruments and Strategies     130

                Identify the Type of Information Needed  131

                Identify Available Information  131
                Determine the Methods for Obtaining Information  131
                Search Assessment Resources  133
                Evaluate and Select an Assessment Instrument or Strategy 137
Administering Assessment Instruments 145
                Before Administration  147

                During Administration  148

                After Administration  151
Scoring Assessment Instruments   151
                Scoring Performance Assessment  152
                Scoring Errors  153
                Standards for Scoring Assessment Instruments  153
Interpreting Assessment Results  154
Summary 155 • Questions for Discussion 156 • Suggested Activities 156  • References 157

PART TWO Overview of Assessment Areas
Chapter 8 Assessment of Intelligence and General Ability  158

Defining Intelligence  158
Theories of Intelligence 160
                Spearman's Two-Factor Theory  161

                Thurstone’s Multifactor Theory  162

                Vernon's Hierarchical Model  163

                Catell-Horn GF-GC Theory  164
                Guilford's Structure-of-Intellect Model  164

                Plaget's Theory of Cognitive Development  165

                Luria's Model  166
                Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence  166
                Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences  167

                Carroll's Three-Stratum Model of Human Abilities  167

                Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive Theory of Cognitive Processing  168
                Catell-Horn-Carroll Hierarchical Three-Stratum Model  168

Intelligence Tests  170
                Ability, Intelligence, Achievement, and Aptitude  172
                Individual Intelligence Tests  172

                Group Intelligence Tests    185

                Specialized Tests  187
                Interviews and Observations  188
Issues in Assessing Intelligence  189
Summary 191 • Questions for Discussion 191 • Suggested Activities 191 • References 192
Chapter 9 Assessment of Achievement  195
Assessing Achievement   195
Standardized Achievement Tests   196

                Achievement Test Batteries  197

                Individual Achievement Tests  202

                Diagnostic Tests  205
                Subject-Area Tests  210
Adult Achievement Tests    211
Other Types of Achievement Assessment Instruments  211

                Criterion-Referenced Tests and Minimum-Level Skills Tests  211

                State Achievement Tests 213
                National Assessment of Educational Progress  213
                Curriculum-Based Assessment and Curriculum-Based Measurement  214
                Performance Assessment   214
                Portfolio Assessment  215

Factors Affecting Student Achievement 215

Analysis of Class Profile   217
Summary 221 • Questions for Discussion 221 • Suggested Activities 222 • References 222
Chapter 10 Assessment of Aptitude 223
Aptitude Tests  223
                Multiple-Aptitude Test Batteries  224

                Specialized Aptitude Tests  230

                Admissions Tests   235
                Readiness Tests   239
Summary 240 • Questions for Discussion  240 • Suggested Activities   211 • References 211
Chapter 11 Career and Employment Assessment 243

Career Assessment  243
                Interest Inventories  244

                Work Values Inventories  250

                Personality Inventories  252
                Abilities and Skills Assessment  253
                Career Development Inventories  256

                Combined Assessment Programs  257

                Interviews   257
Employment Assessment  258
                Selection Interviews  258
                Biographical Information   259
                Tests  260
                Job Analysis  262
                Assessment Centers  265
                Guidelines for Employee Selection  266
                Trends In Employment Assessment  266
Summary 267 • Questions for Discussion 268 • Suggested Activities  268  • Reference 269
Chapter 12 Personality Assessment  271
Defining Personality  271
                Traits, States, and Types  272
Personality Inventories  274
                Approaches To Personality Inventory Development   274
Categories of Personality Inventories  276

                Structured Personality Inventories  276

                Projective Instruments and Techniques  285
                Personality Inventories with a Positive Focus  294

                Response Styles  297
Summary 298 • Questions for Discussion 298 • Suggested Activities 299 • Reference 300

PART THREE Applications and Issues Related to Assessment
Chapter 13 Clinical Assessment 303
Fundamentals of Clinical Assessment  303
                Political Issues in Diagnosis  304

                Determining a Diagnosis  304

                Dsm-5  305
                Interviews in Clinical Assessment  308

                Mental Status Exam  310
                Instruments Used in Clinical Assessment  311

                Suicide Risk Assessment 317
Observation and Clinical Assessment  319
Neuropsychological Assessment   326
Cultural Considerations in Clinical Assessment  329

Summary 329 • Questions for Discussion 330 • Suggested Activities 330 • References 330
Chapter 14 Assessment in Education 332
School Assessment Programs 333
                Planning a School Assessment Program 333

                Instruments Used in School Assessment Programs  334
Assessment Activities of School Counselors  336

                Needs Assessments  337
                Assessing Specific Learning Disabilities 337

                Assessing Giftedness  340
                Consulting with Teachers  346

Environmental Assessment in the Schools  346
Competencies in Assessment and Evaluation for School Counselors    347
Assessment Issues in Education     348
Test Preparation and Performance  349
                Coaching  350
                Test-Wiseness  350
                Test Anxiety  351
Summary 352 • Questions for Discussion  353 • Suggested Activities 353 • References 353
Chapter 15 Assessment Issues with Diverse Populations  356
Multicultural Assessment  357
                Measurement  Bias  357
                Multicultural Perspectives In Assessment  360
                Acculturation  361
                Strategies  361
                Assessment Of Linguistically Diverse Individuals  361

Assessment of Individuals with  Disabilities   363

                Assessment of Individuals with Visual Impairment  365

                Assessment of Individuals with Hearing Impairment    366
                Assessment of Individuals with Intellectual Disability  367

                Assessment of Individuals with Neuropsychological Impairment 369 Assessment of Individuals with Communication Disorders  369

                Assessment of Children with Disabilities  369
Standards for Assessment with Diverse Populations  372
Summary  372 • Questions for Discussion 373 • Suggested Activities 373 • References 373
Chapter 16 Communicating Assessment Results  375
Feedback Sessions  376
                Group Feedback Sessions  378
                Problem Areas    378
                Feedback Sessions With Parents   381
Assessment Reports  383
                Qualities of Well-Written  Reports  384
                The Assessment Report Format  385
Communicating Assessment Results to Other Professionals  390

Communicating Assessment Results to the Public  390
Summary 392 • Questions for Discussion 392 • Suggested Activities 392 • References 393
Chapter 17 Ethical and legal Issues in Assessment  395

Professional Standards and Codes of Ethics  395
                American Counseling Association Code of Ethics  396
                AERA, APA, and NCME Standards For Educational and Psychological Testing 396
                American Psychological Association Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct 398
                Association For Assessment And Research in Counseling Responsibilities of Users of Standardized Tests, Third Edition  399
                Joint Committee on Testing Practices Code Of Fair Testing Practices In Education  399
                National Council On Measurement in Education Code of Professional Responsibilities in Educational Measurement  400
Ethical Issues in Assessment  400
                Professional Training and Competence  400
                Test-User Qualifications    402
                Client Welfare Issues  404
Legal Issues in Assessment  404

Statutes and Regulations  405

Judicial Decisions  408
Summary 410 • Questions for Discussion 410 • Suggested Activities 410 • References 411


Appendix I Standards for Multicultural Assessment Fourth Revision, 2012 412

Appendix II Responsibilities of Users of Standardized Tests (RUST; 3rd ed.) 417

Name Index   422

Editorial Reviews

From Reviews of the Book:   “This text gives a good overview of the issues involved for test development and the types of settings in which tests are used. While it's geared toward counselors, I have felt that there is good applicability for graduate students in Ed Psych and in Higher Ed Admin . . . . I also REALLY liked the supplemental instructional materials that come with the text. I found the PowerPoint presentations a useful way to think about preparing for my lectures . . . . These materials helped provide a concrete path to give the students the context they desired. I also liked the case studies that are provided. The examples were very useful and I integrated them frequently into my class.” –Diane Kelly-Riley, Washington State University “[This] book is impressive. Clearly written and well-articulated, the authors thoroughly cover the breadth and depth of mental health assessment. They begin each chapter by informing the readers what they should learn, which is a powerful yet subtle way to set the stage for students. Major themes are covered and many sections are concluded with cogent case examples that nicely illuminate the nuances of mental health assessment. The aggregate of this well written book provides a wealth of useful information to the beginning student, clinical educator, or seasoned counselor . . . . This book more than stands up to other texts. Something that particularly stands out . . . vis-a-vis other books is the mental status exam and suicide assessment sections . . . . I like the writing style. It is not too esoteric, not too simplistic. I believe it's the perfect writing style for master's level students.” –Anthony Tasso, Farleigh Dickerson University “Key strengths clearly include the iterative process that has allowed this manuscript to become one of the foremost educational assets of facilitating assessment in counseling . . . . [The] exercises help elevate this manuscript into a league of its own. [The authors have] a keen ability . . . to outline very dense and complex material in a very readable, teachable, and meaningful way.” –Donald Deering, Oakland University and University of Phoenix