Astrocytes in (Patho)Physiology of the Nervous System

Other | December 10, 2008

EditorVladimir Parpura, Philip G. Haydon

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The goal of this book is to integrate information that has accumulated in recent years revealing the active role of astrocytes in physiological processing in the central nervous system and to use this as a basis for identifying pathological roles for these glial cells in the brain. Astrocytes, a subtype of glial cell, have long been neglected as active participants in intercellular communication and information processing in the central nervous system, in part due to their lack of the electrical excitability. However, astrocytes possess a diverse assortment of ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors, and transport mechanisms that enable astrocytes to respond to many of the same signals that act on neurons. Since astrocytes can detect chemical transmitters that are released from neurons and can release extracellular signals, there is an increasing awareness that they play physiological roles in regulating neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. Astrocytes also play critical roles during pathophysiological states of the nervous system.

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The goal of this book is to integrate information that has accumulated in recent years revealing the active role of astrocytes in physiological processing in the central nervous system and to use this as a basis for identifying pathological roles for these glial cells in the brain. Astrocytes, a subtype of glial cell, have long been ne...

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Due to their lack of electrical excitability, astrocytes, a subtype of glial cell, have long been neglected as active participants in intercellular communication within the central nervous system. Astrocytes, however, possess a diverse assortment of ion channels,neurotransmitter receptors, and transport mechanisms that enable them to r...

Format:OtherDimensions:758 pages, 9.25 × 6.1 × 0.27 inPublished:December 10, 2008Publisher:Springer USLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0387794913

ISBN - 13:9780387794914

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Table of Contents

Hepatic encephalopathy: A primary astrocytopathy.- Neural stem cells disguised as astrocytes.- Neurotransmitter receptors in astrocytes.- Specialized neurotransmitter transporters in astrocytes.- Connexin expression (gap junctions and hemichannels) in astrocytes.- Regulation of potassium by glial cells in the central nervous system.- Energy and amino acid neurotransmitter metabolism in astrocytes.- Calcium ion signaling in astrocytes.- Astrocytes in control of biophysical properties of the extracellular space.- Structural association of astrocytes with neurons and vasculature: Defining territorial boundaries.- Synaptic information processing by astrocytes.- Mechanisms of transmitter release from astrocytes.- Release of trophic factors and immune molecules from astrocytes.- Molecular approaches for studying astrocytes.- The tripartite synapse..- Glia-derived D-serine and synaptic plasticity.- Purinergic signaling in astrocyte function and interactions with neurons.-Astrocyte control of blood flow.- A role for glial cells of the neuroendocrine brain in the central control of female sexual development.- Physiological and pathological roles of astrocytemediated neuronal synchrony.-  Role of ion channels and amino-acid transporters in the biology of astrocytic tumors.- Connexins and pannexins: Two gap junction families mediating glioma growth control.- The impact of astrocyte mitochondrial metabolism on neuroprotection during aging.- Alexander disease: A genetic disorder of astrocytes.- Role of astrocytes in epilepsy.- Hepatic encephalopathy: A primary astrocytopathy.