Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change by Guy P. BrasseurAtmospheric Chemistry and Global Change by Guy P. Brasseur

Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change

EditorGuy P. Brasseur, John J. Orlando, Geoffrey S. Tyndall

Hardcover | January 1, 1999

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Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change presents an integrated examination of chemical processes in the atmosphere, focusing on global-scale problems and their role in the evolution of the Earth system. Taking a largely interdisciplinary approach, it features the collective efforts of a groupof scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), as well as other experts from several universities and national laboratories. Topics discussed include the fundamental physical, chemical, and biological processes that affect the atmospheric composition; the chemical mechanismsthat affect the production and the fate of important chemical compounds; and the techniques used to investigate the chemical processes in the atmosphere. The book concludes with discussions on global problems related to the atmosphere (stratospheric ozone depletion, changes in greenhouse gases, andglobal chemical pollution), the relationship between the atmosphere and the global climate, and the long-term chemical evolution of the atmosphere. Each chapter features a brief essay by a leader in the field and includes a large number of current references. Ideal for graduate courses inatmospheric chemistry and atmospheric science, Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change also serves as an authoritative and practical reference for scientists studying the Earth's atmosphere. Support materials for the book are available via the website
Guy P. Brasseur, John J. Orlando, and Geoffrey S. Tyndall are all at National Center for Atmospheric Research, Colorado.
Title:Atmospheric Chemistry and Global ChangeFormat:HardcoverDimensions:688 pages, 7.28 × 10 × 1.5 inPublished:January 1, 1999Publisher:Oxford University Press

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195105214

ISBN - 13:9780195105216


Table of Contents

PrefaceContributing AuthorsList of Frequently Used Symbols1. Atmospheric Chemistry and the Earth System1.1. Introduction1.2. The Earth SystemFurther ReadingRalph J. Cicerone: Essay: Atmospheric Chemistry and the Earth SystemPart 1: Fundamentals2. Atmospheric Dynamics and Transport2,1. Introduction2.2. The Governing Equations2.3. Constraints on Atmospheric Motion2.4. Zonal Means and Eddies2.5. Atmospheric Waves2.6. Tropospheric Circulation and Transport2.7. Stratospheric Circulation and Transport2.8. Stratosphere-Troposphere ExchangeFurther ReadingMichael McIntyre: Essay: Why Understand Dynamics -- And What Is "Understanding" Anyway?3. Chemical and Photochemical Processes3.1. Introduction3.2. Radiation3.3. Photophysical and Photochemical Processes3.4. Chemical Reactions3.5. Catalytic Cycles3.6. Role of Excited States3.7. Measurements of Rate Coefficients3.8. The Steady State Approximation3.9. Lifetimes in the AtmosphereFurther ReadingHarold Schiff: Essay: When Do We Know Enough about Atmospheric Chemistry?4. Aerosols and Clouds4.1. Introduction4.2. Overview of the Atmospheric Aerosol4.3. The Role of Clouds in Tropospheric Chemistry4.4. Single-Particle Physical Characteristics4.5. Gas-to-Particle Conversion4.6. Acid-Base Reactions of Aerosol Particles4.7. Removal Processes Associated with Aerosols4.8. Solubility of Gases in Droplets4.9. Mass Transfer Rates4.10. Aqueous ReactionFurther ReadingRichard Turco: Essay: Aerosols and Clouds: A Postscript5. Trace Gas Exchanges and Biogeochemical Cycles5.1. Introduction5.2. Surface Exchanges5.3. The Global Water Cycle5.4. The Global Carbon Cycle5.5. The Global Nitrogen Cycle5.6. The Global Sulfur Cycle5.7. HalogensFurther ReadingJames Lovelock: Essays: The View from OutsidePart 2: Chemical Families6. Hydrogen Compounds6.1. Importance of Atmospheric Hydrogen Compounds6.2. Scope and Definitions6.3. Sources of Hydrogen to the Atmosphere6.4. Chemistry of Hydrogen Species in the Middle Atmosphere6.5. Chemistry of Hydrogen Compounds in the Troposphere6.6. Concentrations of Hydrogen Compounds in the Stratosphere6.7. Concentrations of Hydrogen Compounds in the Troposphere6.8. SummaryFurther ReadingDieter Ehhalt: Essay: Hydrogen Compounds7. Nitrogen Compounds7.1. Importance of Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen7.2. Scope and Definitions7.3. The Role of Odd Nitrogen in the Stratosphere7.4. Odd Nitrogen in the "Contemporary" Stratosphere7.5. Odd Nitrogen in the Troposphere7.6. Experimental Summary of the Influence of Odd Nitrogen in the Continental Boundary Layer7.7. NO3 Chemistry7.8. Gaseous Acid and Particulate Nitrate Formation7.9 Chemistry of Organic Nitrates. Further ReadingIan Galbally: Essay: Time's Arrow8. Halogen Compounds8.1. Introduction8.2. Scope and Definitions8.3. Sources of Halogens8.4. Loss Processes of Halogen Source Gases8.5. Inorganic Chemistry of Halogen Species8.6. Controlling the Detrimental Effects of Halogens on the Atmosphere; Future OutlookFurther ReadingMario Molina: Essay: CFCs and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion9. Carbon-Containing Compounds9.1. 9.2. Scope and Definitions9.3. Atmospheric Photochemistry of Hydrocarbons9.4. Distribution of HydrocarbonsFurther ReadingHanwant Singh: Essay: Hydrocarbons10. Sulfur Compounds10.1. Introduction10.2. Scope and Definitions10.3. Sulfur Compounds10.4. Tropospheric Chemistry of Sulfur Compounds10.5. Measurements of Sulfur Gas Abundances and Distributions10.6. SO2 and Acid Precipitation10.7. Stratospheric Sulfur Chemistry10.8. Gas Phase Ionic Chemistry in the StatosphereFurther ReadingRobert J. Charlson: Essay: Sulfur, Aerosols, Clouds and RainPart 3: Tools11. Observational Methods: Instruments and Platforms11.1. Introduction11.2. Instrumentation for Constituent Measurements11.3. Flux Measurements11.4. Measurements of Atmospheric Radiation11.5. Instrumentation for Aerosol andrCloud Measurements11.6. Observing PlatformsFurther ReadingGerard Megie: Essay: From Individual Measurements to Scale Integration Strategies12. Modeling12.1. Introduction12.2. Model Equations12.3. Modeling Chemical Processes12.4. Modeling Atmospheric Transport12.5. Examples and Illustrations12.6. Modeling Global Budgets and Biogeochemical Cycles12.7. Data Assimilation12.8. Inverse Modeling12.9 Chemical-Transport Models in the Future. Further ReadingHenning Rodhe: Essay: How Complex Do Models Need to Be?Part 4: Ozone, Climate and Global Change13. Tropospheric Ozone13.1. Introduction13.2. Distribution and Trends13.3. Production and Loss of Ozone13.4. Major Uncertainties and Research NeedsFurther ReadingPaul Crutzen: Essay: Tropospheric Ozone14. Middle Atmospheric Ozone14.1. Introduction14.2. The Ozone Distribution14.3. Ozone Production14.4. Ozone Destruction14.5. Transport Effects14.6. Polar Ozone14.7. Ozone Peturbations14.8. Imapct of Ozone Depletion on UV RadiationFurther ReadingSusan Solomon: Essay: Ozone Depletion: From Pole to Pole15. Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate15.1. Introduction15.2. Radiation in the Atmosphere15.3. Natural Variations: Past Climates15.4. Impact of Anthropogenic Trace Gases on Climate15.5. Global Warming Potentials (GWPs)15.6. Radiative Effects of Aerosols15.7. Response of the Climate System to Radiative ForcingFurther ReadingStephen H. Schneider: Essay: Can Climate Models be Validated?16. Atmospheric Evolution and Global Perspective16.1. Introduction16.2. Atmospheric Evolution on Geological Timescales16.3. Human Influences on the Atmosphere16.4. Future Trends16.5. Global PerspectiveFurther ReadingDaniel L. Albritton: Essay: The Atmospheric Humankind: Our Related FuturesAppendicesA: Physical Constants and Other DataB: Units, Conversion Factors, and Multiplying PrefixesC: Atmospheric Parameters and Mixing Ratios of Chemical ConstituentsD: Chemical Species in the AtmosphereE: Rate Coefficients for Second-Order Gas Phase ReactionsF: Rate Coefficients for Association Gas Phase ReactionsG: Mass Accomidation CoefficientsH: Surface Reaction ProbabilityI: Atmospheric HumidityJ: Henry's Law CoefficientsK: Aqueous Equilibrium ConstantsL: Rate Coefficients for Aqueous Phase ReactionsM: Spectrum of Solar Extraterrestrial Actinic Flux (120-730 nm)N: Photolysis FrequenciesSample ProblemsReferencesIndex