Atmospheric Tides: Thermal and Gravitational by S. ChapmanAtmospheric Tides: Thermal and Gravitational by S. Chapman

Atmospheric Tides: Thermal and Gravitational

byS. Chapman, R.S. Lindzen

Paperback | October 14, 2011

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Everyone is familiar with the daily changes of air temperature. The barometer shows that these are accompanied by daily changes of mass distribution of the atmosphere, and consequently with daily motions of the air. In the tropics the daily pressure change is evident on the barographs; in temperate and higher latitudes it is not noticeable, being overwhelmed by cyclonic and anticyclonic pressure variations. There too, however, the daily change can be found by averaging the variations over many days; and the same process suffices to show that there is a still smaller lunar tide in the atmosphere, first sought by Laplace. Throughout nearly two centuries these 'tides', thermal and gravitational, have been extensively discussed in the periodical literature of science, although they are very minor phenomena at ground level. This monograph summarizes our present knowledge and theoretical under­ standing of them. It is more than twenty years since the appearance of the one previous monograph on them - by Wilkes - and nearly a decade since they were last comprehensively reviewed, by Siebert. The intervening years have seen many additions to our know­ ledge of the state of the upper atmosphere, and of the tides there, on the basis of measurements by radio, rockets and satellites.
Title:Atmospheric Tides: Thermal and GravitationalFormat:PaperbackPublished:October 14, 2011Publisher:Springer NetherlandsLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:940103401X

ISBN - 13:9789401034012

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Table of Contents

1. Introductory and Historical.- 1.1. Introduction: Pytheas, Bacon, Newton and Laplace.- 1.2. The Barometric and Other Daily Variations.- 1.2A. True or Apparent Time, and Mean Time.- 1.2B. The Harmonic Dial.- 1.3. Thermal Tides and Kelvin's Resonance Theory.- 1.4. More Realistic Atmospheric Models.- 1.5. The Phase of S2 (p).- 1.6. Doubts as to the Resonance Theory.- 1.7. Renewed Hope in the Resonance Theory.- 1.8. Atmospheric Oscillations as Studied by Weekes and Wilkes.- 1.9. Rockets Exclude Resonance.- 1.10. Ozone Absorption of Radiation the Main Cause of S2(p).- 1.11. Upper Air Data.- 1.12. Theoretical Calculations of the Diurnal Thermal Tide.- 1.13. Other Features of Atmospheric Oscillations.- 2S. The Solar Daily Atmospheric Oscillations As Revealed By Meteorological Data.- 2S.1. The Material Studied; Ground Level Data.- 2S.2. Harmonic Analysis of S; The Non-Cyclic Variation.- 2S.3. The Seasonal Variation of S.- 2S.3A. Daily Seasonal Integers ? (Sigma) or SN (Bartels, 1954).- 2S.4. The World-Wide Distribution of S, Particularly of S(p).- 2S.4A. S2(p).- 2S.4A.1. Types of Associated Legendre Functions.- 2S.4A.2. The Spherical Harmonic Expression of S2(p).- 2S.4B. S1(p).- 2S.4C. S3(p).- 2S.4D. S4(p).- 2S.5. The Daily Variation of Air Temperature T.- 2S.6. The Daily Wind Variation S(V).- 2S.7. Atmospheric Daily Changes above Ground Level.- 2S.7A. Daily Variations between the Ground and 30 km.- 2S.7B. Daily Variations from 30 km-60 km.- 2S.7C. Daily Variations from 80-120 km.- 2S.7D. Daily Variations in the Thermosphere.- 2S.7E. Analysis of Data Covering Only a Fraction of a Day.- 2L. The Lunar Atmospheric Tide As Revealed By Meteorological Data.- 2L.1. Introduction.- 2L.2. The Tropical Lunar Air Tide.- 2L.3. The Lunar Air Tide Outside the Tropics.- 2L.4. The Month and the Lunar Day.- 2L.4A. The Main Harmonic Components of the Lunar Tidal Potential.- 2L.5. Methods of Computation of L from Observed Data; Early Methods Based on Apparent Lunar Time.- 2L.6. The Chapman-Miller (or C-M) Method for Meteorological Variables.- 2L.6A. Use of the Integers Mu (or ?) instead of the Integers Nu or Nu? (or v?).- 2L.6B. The Components Sp.- 2L.7. Vector Probable Errors.- 2L.8. The Determination of L2 from Only a Few Meteorological Readings per Day.- 2L.9. The Lunar Semidiurnal Barometric Tide L2 (p).- 2L.10. The Expression of L2 (p) in Spherical Harmonic Functions.- 2L. 11. The Asymmetry of L2 (p) Relative to the Equator, and its Seasonal Variation.- 2L.12. Comparison of L2(p) and S2(p).- 2L.13. The Lunar Tidal Wind Variation.- 2L.14. The Lunar Tidal Variation of Air Temperature.- 2L.15. The Lunar Tidal Changes of Height of Various Pressure Levels.- 2L.16. Brief Mention of the Lunar Geomagnetic Tide.- 3. Quantitative Theory Of Atmospheric Tides And Thermal Tides.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Equations.- 3.3. Methods of Solution.- 3.3A. Laplace's Tidal Equation.- 3.3B. Vertical Structure Equation.- 3.3C. Outline of Overall Procedure.- 3.4. Sources of Excitation.- 3.4A. Gravitational Excitation.- 3.4B. Thermal Excitation Due to Exchange of Heat with the Ground.- 3.4C. Thermal Excitation Due to Direct Atmospheric Absorption of Insolation.- 3.4D. Summary.- 3.5. Explicit Solutions.- 3.5A. The Migrating Solar Semidiurnal Thermal Tide.- 3.5B. The Solar Diurnal Thermal Tide.- 3.5C. The Lunar Semidiurnal Tide.- 3.5D. Other Components.- 3.6. Shortcomings of Present Calculations.- 3.6A. Surface Topography.- 3.6B. Dissipation.- 3.6B.1. Infrared Cooling.- 3.6B.2. Molecular Viscosity and Conductivity.- 3.6B.3. Ion Drag and Thermal Tides in the Ionosphere.- 3.6C. Non-Linear Effects.- 3.6D. Neglect of Mean Winds and Horizontal Temperature Gradients.- 3.6E. Additional Remarks.- 3.7. Comparison of Theory with Data.- List of Symbols for Chapter 3.- Guide To The Figures And Tables.- References.- Index Of Names.- Index Of Subjects.- Index Of Places.