Axonal Regeneration in the Mammalian Central Nervous System: A Critique of Hypotheses by Dorothy E. OorschotAxonal Regeneration in the Mammalian Central Nervous System: A Critique of Hypotheses by Dorothy E. Oorschot

Axonal Regeneration in the Mammalian Central Nervous System: A Critique of Hypotheses

byDorothy E. Oorschot, David G. Jones

Paperback | April 20, 1990

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This state-of-the-art review links the experimental data into a cohesive and critical account of CNS regeneration. Research findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to one (or more) of thirteen hypotheses concerned with regeneration in the mammalian CNS. Research findings reviewed include: regeneration in developing mammals and in submammalian vertebrates, the use of transplants and/or pharmacological treatments, in vitro studies on neurotrophic and neurite promoting factors and their potential relevance to CNS regeneration in vivo, and in vitro studies on the types of glial cells that may be responsible for enhancing or suppressing axonal re-growth.
Title:Axonal Regeneration in the Mammalian Central Nervous System: A Critique of HypothesesFormat:PaperbackDimensions:128 pagesPublished:April 20, 1990Publisher:Springer Berlin HeidelbergLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:354051757X

ISBN - 13:9783540517573

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Table of Contents

1 Hypotheses Concerned with Regeneration in the Mammalian Central Nervous System.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Histopathological Response to Trauma.- 1.2.1 PNS of Mammals.- 1.2.2 CNS of Submammalian Vertebrates.- 1.2.3 CNS of Mammalian Vertebrates.- 1.3 Successful Regeneration of Some Neurons in the Mammalian CNS.- 1.4 Hypotheses to Explain the Limited Regenerative Capacity of CNS Neurons.- 1.4.1 Intrinsic Inability of CNS Neurons to Regenerate?.- 1.4.2 Formation of Inappropriate Synapses.- 1.4.3 Autoimmune Inhibition of Regenerative Attempts.- 1.4.4 Progressive Necrosis at the Lesion Site and the Formation of Cystic Cavities.- 1.4.5 Proliferation of Fibroblasts, Neuroglial and Endothelial Cells at the Lesion Site.- 1.4.6 Absence of Schwann Cells in the CNS as Guides for Regenerating Axons.- 1.4.7 Necessity of an Ependymal - Mesenchymal Interaction.- 1.4.8 Incompatibility Between the Neuronal Processes and the Non-neuronal Cells of the CNS.- 1.4.9 Inhibition of Axonal Growth by Post-injury Myelin Breakdown Products.- 1.4.10 A Lack of Periaxonal Vascular Permeability.- 1.4.11 An Absence of Requisite Growth Factors.- 1.4.12 Ineffective Somal Response by CNS Neurons to Axotomy.- 1.4.13 Necessity of Recent or Continued Neurogenesis.- 2 In Vivo Experimental Approaches to Hypotheses Concerned with Regeneration in the Mammalian CNS.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Submammalian Vertebrates.- 2.2.1 Inappropriate Synaptogenesis.- 2.2.2 Non-neuronal Environment.- 2.2.3 Somal Response.- 2.2.4 Vascular Permeability.- 2.2.5 Necessity of Recent or Continued Neurogenesis.- 2.3 Developmental Events in Mammals.- 2.3.1 Non-neuronal Environment.- 2.3.2 Necessity of Recent or Continued Neurogenesis.- 2.3.3 Vascular Permeability.- 2.4 Morphological and Biochemical Assessment of Regeneration in Mammals.- 2.4.1 Inappropriate Synaptogenesis.- 2.4.2 Necrosis and Cyst Formation.- 2.4.3 Neuroglial Scar Tissue.- 2.4.4 Auto-immune Hypothesis.- 2.4.5 A Role for Schwann Cells?.- 2.4.6 Myelin Breakdown Products.- 2.4.7 A Need for Vascular Permeability?.- 2.4.8 Somal Response.- 2.5 The Use of Transplants.- 2.5.1 Peripheral Nerve Transplants.- 2.5.2 Transplants of Fetal Mammalian CNS Tissue.- 2.5.3 Transplantation Studies of Amphibian and Mammalian Glial Scar Tissue.- 2.5.4 Schwann Cell Transplants to the PNS and CNS.- 2.5.5 Transplants of Non-nervous Tissue.- 2.5.6 Transplants of Autonomic Ganglia to the CNS.- 2.5.7 Transplants of Non-cellular Conduits.- 2.6 Pharmacological Approaches.- 2.6.1 Piromen.- 2.6.2 Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone.- 2.6.3 Enzyme Treatment.- 2.6.4 Tri-iodothyronine and L-thyroxine.- 2.6.5 Immunosuppressants.- 2.6.6 Dimethyl Sulphoxide.- 2.6.7 Puromycin.- 2.6.8 Gangliosides.- 2.6.9 Nerve Growth Factor.- 2.6.10 Cytosine Arabinoside.- 2.7 Conclusions.- 3 In Vitro Experimental Approaches to Hypotheses Concerned with Regeneration in the Mammalian CNS.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 The Role of the Microenvironment - Neuronotrophic Factors.- 3.2.1 NGF and Other NTFs.- 3.2.2 In Vitro-Conditioned Media.- 3.2.3 In Vivo-Derived PNS and CNS Wound Fluid.- 3.2.4 Fibroblast Growth Factors.- 3.2.5 Hormonal NTFs.- 3.3 The Role of the Microenvironment - The Substrate and Substrate-Bound Neurite Promoting Factors.- 3.3.1 Mechanism of Neurite Growth.- 3.3.2 Role of the Substrate in Neurite Elongation.- 3.3.3 Substrate-Bound Neurite Promoting Factors.- 3.3.4 Basal Lamina Constituents.- 3.4 The Role of the Microenvironment - Humoral Neurite-Promoting Factors.- 3.4.1 NGF and NGF-Like Molecules.- 3.4.2 NPFs in Conditioned Media.- 3.4.3 NPFs and CNS Wounds.- 3.4.4 Fibroblast Growth Factors.- 3.4.5 Hormonal NPFs.- 3.4.6 Gangliosides.- 3.5 The Role of the Microenvironment - The Non-neuronal Cells.- 3.5.1 Transplants of Non-neuronal Cultured Cells.- 3.5.2 Non-neuronal Cells - Differential Substrate Adhesiveness in the Support of Neurite Elongation.- 3.5.3 In Vivo-Derived CNS Wound Fluid and Glial Mitogens.- 3.5.4 Effect of Non-neuronal Cell Proliferation on Neurite Outgrowth.- 4 Conclusions.- References.