This book contributes to the rich recent scholarship on contemporary Islam in South Asia. It provides insights into the controversies of the past 150 years over how South Asian Muslims ought to respond to the challenges of modernity and Western imperialism. Though such contests of ideas beganwith a few intellectuals, their consequences flowed through to touch the lives of ordinary people. The book also traces the processes, in train since British times, that have created large social categories out of diverse, dispersed communities. In the past, such communities shared only a commondevotion, a sacred book and the duties the book enshrined. This volume highlights the diversity of peoples and practices among South Asians who follow Islam. Readers learn about aspects of those practices in the resolution of disputes, the education of children, the marriage of offspring and the recreations of leisure time. The book does not underplay theviolence, oppression and uncertainty that Muslims of South Asia too often face in recent times. The essays of Irfan Ahmad and Khaled Ahmed focus on these sombre aspects. Overall, the book invites readers to contemplate the diverse daily lives of the more than 500 million people who are Muslims inSouth Asia.