This book addresses probing questions by translating the general moral concept of fairness into specific criteria for measuring the fairness of proposals for health reform. The authors demonstrate how concerned members of the public and policy makers can apply their benchmarks by actuallyscoring four major proposals for health care reform exemplifying the most prevalent ideas of the 1990s. They pay particular attention to the moral foundation of reforms based on competition. Although some reform ideas fare better than others, all are found weak in establishing open, democraticprocedures for deciding the limits of care. The book also appraises the changes caused by the rapid growth of managed care systems since the collapse of national reform. Written by a leading moral philosopher of health care, an internationally known sociologist, and a health economist, Benchmarks ofFairness should be read by citizens, physicians, nurses, employers, and politicians.