Beyond Feelings: A Guide to Critical Thinking

Paperback | February 8, 2011

byVincent Ruggiero

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This succinct, interdisciplinary introduction to critical thinking successfully dares students to question their own assumptions and to enlarge their thinking through the analysis of the most common problems associated with everyday reasoning. The text offers a unique and effective organization: Part I explains the fundamental concepts; Part II describes the most common barriers to critical thinking; Part III offers strategies for overcoming those barriers.

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This succinct, interdisciplinary introduction to critical thinking successfully dares students to question their own assumptions and to enlarge their thinking through the analysis of the most common problems associated with everyday reasoning. The text offers a unique and effective organization: Part I explains the fundamental concepts...

Format:PaperbackDimensions:9.1 × 6.4 × 0.4 inPublished:February 8, 2011Publisher:McGraw-Hill EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0078038189

ISBN - 13:9780078038181

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Extra Content

Table of Contents

Preface

Introduction

PART I. THE CONTEXT

1. Who Are You?

The Influence of Time and Place

The Influence of Ideas

The Influence of Mass Culture

The "Science" of Manipulation

The Influence of Psychology

Becoming an Individual

2. What Is Critical Thinking?

Mind, Brain, or Both?

Critical Thinking Defined

Characteristics of Critical Thinkers

The Role of Intuition

The Basic Activities of Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking and Writing

Critical Thinking and Discussion

Avoiding Plagiarism

3. What Is Truth?

Where Does It All Begin?

Imperfect Perception

Imperfect Memory

Deficient Information

Even the Wisest Can Err

Truth Is Discovered, Not Created

4. What Does It Mean to Know?

Requirements of Knowing

Testing Your Own Knowledge

How We Come to Know

Why Knowing is Difficult

A Cautionary Tail

Is Faith a Form of Knowledge

Obstacles to Knowledge

5. How Good Are Your Opinions?

Opinions Can Be Mistaken

Opinions on Moral Issues

Even Experts Can Be Wrong

Kinds of Errors

Informed Versus Uninformed Opinion

Forming Opinions Responsibly

6. What Is Evidence?

Kinds of Evidence

Evaluating Evidence

What Constitutes "Sufficient" Evidence?

7. What Is Argument?

The Parts of an Argument

Evaluating Arguments

More Difficult Arguments

PART II. THE PITFALLS

8. The Basic Problem: "Mine Is Better"

Egocentric People

Ethnocentric People

Controlling "Mine-Is-Better" Thinking

9. Errors of Perspective

Poverty of Aspect

Unwarranted Assumptions

The Either/Or Outlook

Mindless Conformity

Absolutism

Relativism

Bias For or Against Change

10. Errors of Procedure

Biased Consideration of Evidence

Double Standard

Hasty Conclusion

Overgeneralization and Stereotyping

Oversimplification

The Post Hoc Fallacy

11. Errors of Expression

Contradiction

Arguing in a Circle

Meaningless Statement

Mistaken Authority

False Analogy

Irrational Appeal

12. Errors of Reaction

Automatic Rejection

Changing the Subject

Shifting the Burden of Proof

"Straw Man"

Attacking the Critic

13. The Errors in Combination

Errors of Perspective

Errors of Procedure

Errors of Expression

Errors of Reaction

Sample Combinations of Errors

A Sensible View of Terminology

PART III. A STRATEGY

14. Knowing Yourself

Critical Thinking Inventory

Using Your Inventory

Challenge and Reward

15. Being Observant

Observing People

Observation in Science and Medicine

The Range of Application

Becoming More Observant

Reflecting Your Observations

16. Selecting an Issue

The Basic Rule: Less Is More

How to Limit an Issue

Sample Issue: Pornography

Sample Issue: Boxing

Sample Issue: Juvenile Crime

Narrowing the Issue Further

17. Conducting Inquiry

Working with Inconclusive Results

Where to Look for Information

Keeping Focused

How Much Inquiry is Enough?

Managing Lengthy Material

18. Forming a Judgment

Evaluating Evidence

Evaluating Your Sources' Arguments

Making Important Distinctions

Expressing Judgments

19. Persuading Others

Guidelines for Persuasion

An Unpersuasive Presentation

A Persuasive Presentation

Notes

Index