Beyond Pleasure and Pain: How Motivation Works

Paperback | October 9, 2013

byE. Tory Higgins

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How does motivation work? The classic answer is that people are motivated to approach pleasure and avoid pain, that they are motivated by "carrots and sticks." But to understand human motivation, it is necessary to go beyond pleasure and pain. What people want is to be effective in their lifepursuits, and there are three distinct ways that people want to be effective. They want to be effective in having desired results (value), which includes having pleasure but is not limited to pleasure. They want to be effective in managing what happens (control) and in establishing what's real(truth), even if the process of managing what happens or establishing what's real is painful.These three distinct ways of wanting to be effective go beyond just wanting pleasure, but there is even more to the story of how motivation works. These ways of wanting to be effective do not function in isolation. Rather, they work together. Indeed, the ways that value, truth, and control worktogether is the central story of motivation. By understanding how motivation works as an organization of value, truth, and control motives, we can re-think basic motivational issues, such the nature of personality and culture, how the motives of others can be managed effectively, and what is "thegood life."

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How does motivation work? The classic answer is that people are motivated to approach pleasure and avoid pain, that they are motivated by "carrots and sticks." But to understand human motivation, it is necessary to go beyond pleasure and pain. What people want is to be effective in their lifepursuits, and there are three distinct ways ...

E. Tory Higgins is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has received the Distinguished Scientist Award from the Society of Experimental Social Psychology, the William James Fellow Award for Distinguished Achievements in Psychological Science (from the American Psychological Society), and the American Psychological ...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:576 pages, 9.25 × 6.5 × 0.68 inPublished:October 9, 2013Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:019935670X

ISBN - 13:9780199356706

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Table of Contents

Part I: Introduction and Background1. Motivation Beyond Pleasure and Pain2. What is Motivation?3. Value, Truth and Control: Ways of Being EffectivePart II: Ways of Being Effective4. Value: Having Desired Results5. Truth: Establishing What's Real6. Control: Managing What HappensPart III: Motivations Working Together7. Value-Truth Relations: Creating Commitment8. Value-Control Relations: It's the Fit that Counts9. Truth-Control Relations: Going in the Right Direction10. Value-Truth-Control Relations: Organization of MotivesPart IV: Implications of Motivations Working Together11. Personality and Culture: Ways of Seeing and Coping With the World12. Managing Motives Effectively: Working Backwards from What You Want13. What is the Good Life?: Well-Being from Being Effective