Bioactive Marine Natural Products by Dewan S. BhakuniBioactive Marine Natural Products by Dewan S. Bhakuni

Bioactive Marine Natural Products

byDewan S. Bhakuni, D.S. Rawat

Paperback | October 19, 2010

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Marine natural products have attracted the attention of biologists and chemists the world over for the past five decades. As a result of the potential for new drug discovery, marine natural products have attracted scientists from different disciplines, such as organic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, pharmacology, biology and ecology. This interest has led to the discovery of over 16,000 marine natural products to date and many of the compounds have shown very promising biological activity. The ocean is considered to be a great source of potential drugs.Bioactive Marine Natural Products is the first book available that covers all aspects of bioactive marine natural products. It fills the void in the literature for bioactive marine natural products. The book covers various aspects of marine natural products and it is hoped that all the major classes of bioactive compounds are included. Different classes of marine organisms and the separation and isolation techniques are discussed. The chemistry and biology of marine toxins, peptides, alkaloids, nucleosides and prostanoids are discussed in detail. Biological, toxicological and clinical evaluations are also dealt with to ensure that the book may be adopted at any stage by any practicing organic chemist or biologist, working in academia or in R&D divisions of pharmaceutical companies. Each chapter in the book includes an abstract to highlight the major points discussed in the text and concluding remarks are given. References to books, monographs, review articles and original papers are provided at the end of each chapter.
Title:Bioactive Marine Natural ProductsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:382 pagesPublished:October 19, 2010Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9048168759

ISBN - 13:9789048168750

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Table of Contents

1. Bioactive Metabolites of Marine Algae,Fungi and Bacteria 1. Introduction 2. Secondary Metabolites of Marine Algae 3. Bioactive Metabolites 3.1 Brominated phenols 3.2 Brominated oxygen heterocyclics 3.3 Nitrogen heterocyclics 3.4 Kainic acids 3.5 Guanidine derivatives 3.6 Phenazine derivatives 3.7 Amino acids and amines 3.8 Sterols 3.9 Sulfated polysaccharides4. Marine Bacteria and Fungi 5. Micro Algae 6. Concluding Remarks References 2. Bioactive Metabolites of Marine Invertebrates 1. Introduction 2. Bioactive Metabolites 2.1 Steroids 2.2 Terpenoids 2.3 Isoprenoids2.4 Prostaglandins2.5 Quinones 2.6 Brominated compounds 3. Marine Toxins 3.1 Tetrodotoxin 3.2 Saxitoxin 3.3 Pahutoxin 4. Marine Nucleosides 4.1 Nitrogen-sulphur heterocyclics5. Bioactive Metabolites of Marine Sponges 6. Marine Invertebrates of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands 6.1 Coelenterates 6.2 Sea Anemones 6.3 Corals 6.4 Bryozoans 6.5 Molluscs6.6 Echinoderms 6.7 Sea-urchins 6.8 Tunicates 7. Concluding RemarksReferences3. Separation and Isolation Techniques 1. Introduction 2. Separation Techniques 2.1 Water soluble constituents 2.2 Ion-exchange chromatography 2.3 Reverse-phase (RP) columns2.4 High/medium pressure chromatography 2.5 Combination of ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography 3. Bioassay Directed Fractionation 4. General Fractionation 5. Isolation Procedures 5.1 Amino acids and simple peptides 5.2 Peptides 5.3 Nucleosides 5.4 Cytokinins 5.5 Alkaloids 6. Marine Toxins 6.1 Saxitoxin 6.2 Brevetoxins 6.3 Tetrodotoxin 6.4 Ciguatoxin and its congeners 6.5 Maitotoxin 6.6 Palytoxin and its congeners 6.7 Gambierol 6.8 Okadaic acids and its congeners 6.9 Miscellaneous toxins7. Concluding Remarks 4. Biological, Toxicological and Clinical Evaluation 1. Introduction 2. Types of Screening 2.1 Individual activity screening 2.2 Broad biological screening 3. Screening Models and Activity 3.1 Antibacterial and antifungal activities 3.2 Antileishmanial activity 3.3 Anthelmintic activity 3.4 Antimalarial activity 3.5 Antiviral activity 3.6 Antiinflammatory activity 3.7 Analgesic activity 3.8 Antiallergic activity 3.9 Antiarrhythmic and antithrombotic activities 3.10 Hypolipidaemic activity 3.11 Hypoglycaemic activity 3.12 Hypotensive activity 3.13 Antihypertensive activity 3.14 Diuretic activity 3.15 Adaptogenic and immunomodulatory activities3.16 Immunomodulation activity3.17 Hepatoprotective activity3.18 Choleretic and anticholestatic activities 3.19 Acute toxicity and CNS activities 3.20 Isolated tissues 4. Anticancer Screening 4.1 Selection of materials 4.2 In vitro and in vivo activity 4.3 Screening methods4.4 Screening problems 4.5 Current approach and status 5. Testing Methods6. Toxicity Evaluation 6.1 Regulatory toxicity 6.2 Reproductive studies 6.3 Teratological study 6.4 Pre- and postnatal study 6.5 Carcinogenic study 6.6 Mutagenic study7. Use of Animals in Experiments8. Clinical Trials8.1 Clinical trials protocol 8.2 Duplicating trials 8.3 Ethical considerations9. Concluding Remarks 5. Bioactivity of Marine Organisms 1. Introduction 2. Bacteria and Fungi 3. Phytoplanktons4. Bioactivity of Marine Organisms 4.1 Seaweeds 4.2 Seaweeds of Indian coasts 4.3 Marine invertebrates of Indian coasts4.4 Search of pharmaceutically useful compounds 5. Actinomycetes6. Concluding Remarks 6. Biosynthesis of Bioactive Metabolites of MarineOrganisms 1. Introduction 2. Problems of Biosynthetic Studies3. Feeding Techniques 4. Biosynthesis of Metabolites of Algae 4.1 Saxitoxin and related compounds 4.2 Brevetoxins4.3 Tetrodotoxin 4.4 Sterols5. Metabolites of Blue-Green Algae 6. Metabolites of Macro Algae7. Metabolites of Marine Invertebrates 7.1 Sponges 7.2 Coelenterates 7.3 Molluscs8. Cholesterol Biosynthesis 9. Biosynthesis of Arsenic-Containing Compounds 10. Problems of Microbial Contamination11. Concluding Remarks7. Bioactive Marine Toxins 1. Introduction2. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning 2.1 Transfer of toxins between organisms 2.2 Saxitoxin2.3 Detection of paralytic shellfish toxins2.4 Tetrodotoxin 3. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning 3.1 Brevetoxins 4. Ciguatera (Seafood Poisoning) 4.1 Ciguatoxin and its congeners 4.2 Mode of action of brevetoxins and ciguatoxins4.3 Maitotoxin 4.4 Palytoxin and its congeners 4.5 Gambierol 4.6 Gambieric Acids 5. Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning5.1 Okadaic acid and its analogs 5.2 Dinophysistoxins 5.3 Total synthesis of okadaic acid 5.4 Pectenotoxins5.5 Yessotoxin6. Miscellaneous Toxins 6.1 Amphidinolides 6.2 Amphidinol 6.3 Prorocentrolide 6.4 Goniodomin-A6.5 Surugatoxin 6.6 Neosurugatoxin6.7 Macroalgal toxins 6.8 Toxic substances of Chondria armata 6.9 Aplysiatoxin and debromoaplysiatoxin6.10 Toxic peptides 7. Concluding Remarks 8. Bioactive Marine Nucleosides 1. Introduction 2. Pyrimidine and Purine-D-arabinosides 2.1 Spongothymidine (Ara-T)2.2 Spongouridine (Ara-U)2.3 Analogs of spongouridine 2.4 Spongoadenosine (Ara-A) 3. Pyrimidine-2'-deoxyribosides 3.1 2'-Deoxyuridine3.2 Thymidine 3.3 3-Methyl-2'-deoxyuridine3.4 3-Methyl-2'-deoxycytidine 3.5 2'-Deoxyadenosine4. Pyrimidine and Purine l- ß-D-ribosides 4.1 Adenosine 4.2 Spongosine 4.3 Analogs of spongosine 4.4 Isoguanosine 4.5 Doridosine 5. Pyrrolo[2,3-d]Pyrimidine Nucleoside 6. 9-[5'-Deoxy-5'-(methylthio)- ß-D-xylofuranosyl]Adenine 7. 5'-Deoxy-5'-Dimethylarsinyl Adenosine 8. Miscellaneous Compounds 8.1 Phidolopin 9. Concluding Remarks 9. Bioactive Marine Alkaloids1. Introduction 2. Pyridoacridine Alkaloids 2.1 Occurrence and chemical properties 2.2 Assignment of structure 2.3 Structural subtypes 3. Pyrroloacridine and Related Alkaloids 4. Indole Alkaloids 5. Pyrrole Alkaloids 6. Isoquinoline Alkaloids 7. Miscellaneous Alkaloids 8. Concluding Remarks References 10. Bioactive Marine Peptides 1. Introduction 2. Peptides Conformation 3. Bioactive Marine Peptides 3.1 Marine algae 3.2 Sponges 3.3 Tunicates 3.4 Ascidians 3.5 Coelenterates 3.6 Molluscs 4. Cone Snail Venoms 5. Sea Urchins 6. Marine Worms 7. Marine Vertebrates 8. Marine Peptides and Related Compounds in Clinical Trials 8.1 Dolastatin 10 8.2 Soblidotin 8.3 Cematodin 8.4 Synthadotin 8.5 Applidine 8.6 Kahalalide F 8.7 Hemiasterlin 9. Miscellenous Peptides 10. Concluding Remarks References 11. Marine Prostaglandins 1. Introduction 2. Marine Organisms 2.1 Plexaura homomalla 2.2 Clavularia viridis QUOY and GAIMARA 2.3 Labophyton depressum 2.4 Telesto riisei 2.5 Gracilaria lichenoides 3. Mammalian-Type Prostaglandins in Marine Organisms 4. Biosynthesis 5. Concluding Remarks AUTHOR INDEX SUBJECT INDEX

Editorial Reviews

"All aspects of Marine natural products are treated with authority in this book. It is certain to become an internationally accepted and widely read volume on an important subject." (Sir Derek Barton, F.R.S, Nobel Laureate)"...On the whole, the authors have successfully undertaken an enormous task by bringing together these broad topics into one book that is richly illustrated with hundreds of chemical structures, makes reference to over 2000 papers, and provides ample evidence that the oceans are a rich source of new drugs. Bioactive Marine Natural Products would be welcome as a text for upper-level undergraduate or graduate courses on marine natural products and should be a valuable reference to specialists and nonspecialists alike." Journal of American Chemical Society 128, 4494 (2006)