Biodegradability of Surfactants by D.R. KarsaBiodegradability of Surfactants by D.R. Karsa

Biodegradability of Surfactants

byD.R. KarsaEditorM.R. Porter

Paperback | September 21, 2012

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The awareness and development of 'biodegradable' surfactants pre-dates current pressures by the environmental movement by nearly three decades, wherein a responsible industry mutually agreed to replace 'hard', non-biodegradable com­ ponents of household detergents by 'soft', biodegradable alternatives, without course to legislation. The only requirement at that time was for surfactants used in detergents to exhibit a 'primary biodegradability' in excess of 80%; this referring to the disap­ pearance or removal from solution of the intact surface active material as de­ tected by specified analytical techniques. This proved useful, as observed environmental impacts of surfactants, e.g. visible foam on rivers, are associated with the intact molecule. Test methods for 'primary biodegradability' were eventually enshrined in EU legislation for nonionic surfactants (Directive 821242/EEC, amended 73/404IEEC) and for anionic surfactants (Directive 8212431EEC, amended 73/405IEEC). No approved test methods and resultant legislation have been developed for cationic and amphoteric surfactants to date. The environmental classification of chemical substances, which of course includes surfactants, and associated risk assessment utilises a second criterion ­ 'ready biodegradability'. This may be assessed by a number of methods which monitor oxygen uptake (BOD), carbon dioxide production or removal of dis­ solved organic carbon (DOC). Some surfactants which comply with the above Detergents Directive are borderline when it comes to 'ready biodegradability'.
Title:Biodegradability of SurfactantsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:257 pagesPublished:September 21, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9401045887

ISBN - 13:9789401045889


Table of Contents

Introduction to surfactant biodegradation. What is biodegradation? Biodegradability testing. Testing strategy and legal requirements. Biodegradability of anionic surfactants. Biodegradabilty of cationic surfactants. Biodegradability of non-ionic surfactants. Biodegradability of amphoteric surfactants. Index.

Editorial Reviews

It is particularly useful..It is well printed, with few typographical errors. - Chemistry and Industry