Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases

Paperback | September 12, 2012

byLewis Vaughn

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Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases, Second Edition, explores the philosophical, medical, social, and legal aspects of key bioethical issues. Opening with a thorough introduction to ethics, bioethics, and moral reasoning, it then covers influential moral theories and the criteria forevaluating them. Integrating eighty-five readings - thirteen of them new to this edition - numerous cases, and abundant pedagogical tools, the book addresses the most provocative and controversial topics in bioethics. Updated throughout, the second edition incorporates new information on justice, health care, and health insurance reform along with more coverage of issues related to race and culture and of the moral challenges facing nurses and other health care professionals. It also offers additionalstep-by-step guidance on how to identify and evaluate moral arguments in real-world contexts, with accompanying exercises and answers in an appendix.

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Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases, Second Edition, explores the philosophical, medical, social, and legal aspects of key bioethical issues. Opening with a thorough introduction to ethics, bioethics, and moral reasoning, it then covers influential moral theories and the criteria forevaluating them. Integrating eighty-five reading...

Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of several books, including Philosophy Here and Now: Powerful Ideas in Everyday Life (2012), Contemporary Moral Arguments, Second Edition (2012), The Power of Critical Thinking, Fourth Edition (2012), and Great Philosophical Arguments (2011), all published by Oxford University Press.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:768 pages, 9.25 × 7.5 × 0.68 inPublished:September 12, 2012Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199796238

ISBN - 13:9780199796236

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Extra Content

Table of Contents

*=New to this editionChapters 3-10 include an "Applying Major Theories" section.Chapters 3-11 include Cases for Evaluation.Each chapter includes Key Terms, a Summary, Further Reading, and Notes.PrefacePART 1. PRINCIPLES AND THEORIES1. Moral Reasoning in BioethicsEthics and BioethicsEthics and the Moral Life- In Depth: Morality and the LawMoral Principles in Bioethics- Autonomy- Beneficence- Utility- JusticeEthical Relativism- In Depth: Anthropology and Moral DiversityEthics and ReligionMoral Arguments- Argument Fundamentals- Review: Valid and Invalid Argument Forms- In Depth: Fallacies in Moral Reasoning- Evaluating Premises- * Assessing Whole Arguments2. Bioethics and Moral TheoriesThe Nature of Moral TheoriesInfluential Moral Theories- Utilitarianism- In Depth: Utilitarianism and the Golden Rule- Kantian Ethics- Natural Law Theory- Rawls' Contract Theory- Virtue Ethics- In Depth: Can Virtue Be Taught?- The Ethics of Care- Feminist EthicsCriteria for Judging Moral Theories- Review: Evaluating Moral Theories: Criteria of AdequacyApplying the Criteria- Utilitarianism- Kant's Theory* READINGS:John Stuart Mill: * "Utilitarianism"Immanuel Kant: * "The Moral Law"Bernard Mayo: * "Virtue and the Moral Life"Virginia Held: * "The Ethics of Care"PART 2. MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL AND PATIENT3. Paternalism and Patient AutonomyShades of Autonomy and Paternalism- In Depth: The Hippocratic OathRefusing Treatment- Legal Brief: Refusing Treatment for Children on Religious GroundsFutile Treatment- In Depth: CPR and DNRClassic Case File: Elizabeth Bouvia- * In Depth: Moral Conflicts in NursingREADINGS:Gerald Dworkin: "Paternalism"Alan Goldman: "The Refutation of Medical Paternalism"Terrence F. Ackerman: "Why Doctors Should Intervene"Robert L. Schwartz: "Autonomy, Futility, and the Limits of Medicine"iBouvia v. Superior Court,/i California Court of Appeals"Fundamental Elements of the Patient-Physician Relationship," AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs"Code of Ethics for Nurses," American Nurses AssociationLisa H. Newton: *"In Defense of the Traditional Nurse"Helgo Kuhse: *"Advocacy or Subservience for the Sake of Patients?"4. Truth-Telling and ConfidentialityPaternalism and Deception- In Depth: Do Patients Want the Truth? Do Physicians Tell It?Confidential Truths- Legal Brief: Confidentiality and a Duty to WarnClassic Case File: Carlos R.READINGS:David C. Thomasma: "Telling the Truth to Patients: A Clinical Ethics Exploration"Mack Lipkin: "On Telling Patients the Truth"Immanuel Kant: "On a Supposed Right to Lie from Altruistic Motives"Susan Cullen and Margaret Klein: "Respect for Patients, Physicians, and the Truth"James Rachels: "Why Privacy Is Important," iJames Rachels/iMark Siegler: "Confidentiality in Medicine--A Decrepit Concept"Ruth Macklin: *"Ethical Relativism in a Multicultural Society"Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, Supreme Court of California5. Informed ConsentAutonomy and ConsentConditions of Informed Consent- In Depth: Two Views of Informed Consent- Legal Brief: Important Informed Consent CasesClassic Case File: Jerry CanterburyREADINGS:Ruth R. Faden and Tom L. Beauchamp: "The Concept of Informed Consent"Jay Katz: "Informed Consent--Must It Remain a Fairy Tale?"Howard Brody: "Transparency: Informed Consent in Primary Care"Robert J. Levine: "Informed Consent: Some Challenges to the Universal Validity of the Western Model"Canterbury v. Spence, United States Court of Appeals6. Human ResearchThe Science of Clinical Trials- In Depth: The Tuskegee TragedyBeneficence, Science, and Placebos- In Depth: Women in Clinical TrialsScience and Informed Consent- In Depth: Why Enter a Clinical Trial?Research on the VulnerableClassic Case File: The UCLA Schizophrenia StudyREADINGS:- The Nuremberg CodeDeclaration of Helsinki, World Medical Association"The Belmont Report," National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research"Final Report: Human Radiation Experiments," Advisory Committee on Human Radiation ExperimentsSamuel Hellman and Deborah S. Hellman: "Of Mice but Not Men: Problems of the Randomized Clinical Trial"Benjamin Freedman: "A Response to a Purported Ethical Difficulty with Randomized Clinical Trials Involving Cancer Patients"Don Marquis: "How to Resolve an Ethical Dilemma Concerning Randomized Clinical Trials"Allan M. Brandt: * "Racism and Research: The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study"Marcia Angell: "The Ethics of Clinical Research in the Third World"Baruch Brody: "Ethical Issues in Clinical Trials in Developing Countries"PART 3. LIFE AND DEATH7. AbortionStarting Point: The Basics- Fact File: U.S. Abortions- In Depth: Abortion and Public Opinion- The Legal Struggle- In Depth: Late-Term AbortionPersons and RightsClassic Case File: Nancy KleinREADINGS:Judith Jarvis Thomson: "A Defense of Abortion"Don Marquis: "Why Abortion Is Immoral"John T. Noonan, Jr.: "An Almost Absolute Value in History"Mary Anne Warren: "On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion"Daniel Callahan: "Abortion Decisions: Personal Morality"Jane English: "Abortion and the Concept of a Person"Michael Tooley: "In Defense of Abortion and Infanticide"Susan Sherwin: "Abortion Through a Feminist Ethic Lens"Roe v. Wade, U.S. Supreme CourtPlanned Parenthood v. Casey, U.S. Supreme Court8. Reproductive Technology- Fact File: Assisted ReproductionIn Vitro Fertilization- In Depth: IVF and Children's Future ChildrenSurrogacy- Legal BriefCloning- In Depth: Cloning Time LineClassic Case File: Baby MREADINGS:Peter Singer: "IVF: The Simple Case"Mary Anne Warren: "IVF and Women's Interests: An Analysis of Feminist Concerns"Cynthia B. Cohen: "'Give Me Children or I Shall Die!' New Reproductive Technologies and Harm to Children""Instruction on Respect for Human Life in Its Origin and on the Dignity of Procreation," Congregation for the Doctrine of the FaithJohn A. Robertson: * "The Presumptive Primacy of Procreative Liberty"Laura M. Purdy: "Surrogate Mothering: Exploitation or Empowerment?"Barbara Katz Rothman: "On 'Surrogacy'"Elizabeth S. Anderson: * Is Women's Labor a Commodity?"Leon R. Kass: "The Wisdom of Repugnance"Dan W. Brock: "Cloning Human Beings: An Assessment of the Ethical Issues Pro and Con"Opinion in the Matter of Baby M, New Jersey Supreme Court9. Genetic ChoicesGenes and GenomesGenetic Testing- In Depth: Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests- Fact File: Genetic TestsGene Therapy- In Depth: Recent Research in Gene TherapyStem CellsClassic Case File: The KingsburysREADINGS:Leon R. Kass: "Implications of Prenatal Diagnosis for the Human Right to Life"Laura M. Purdy: "Genetics and Reproductive Risk: Can Having Children Be Immoral?"Jeff McMahan: "The Morality of Screening for Disability"Dena S. Davis: * Genetic Dilemmas and the Child's Right to an Open Future"Robert Wachbroit: "Disowning Knowledge: Issues in Genetic Testing"Dan W. Brock: "The Non-Identity Problem and Genetic Harms - the Case of Wrongful Handicaps"John Harris: "Is Gene Therapy a Form of Eugenics?"Walter Glannon: "Genetic Enhancement"LeRoy Walters and Julie Gage Palmer: "Germ-Line Gene Therapy"Bonnie Steinbock: "What Does 'Respect for Embryos' Mean in the Context of Stem Cell Research?""Declaration on the Production and the Scientific and Therapeutic Use of Human Embryonic Stem Cells," Pontifical Academy for Life10. Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted SuicideDeciding Life and Death- Legal Brief: Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: Major Developments- In Depth: Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: What Doctors Think and DoAutonomy, Mercy, and Harm- In Depth: Oregon's Death With Dignity Act- In Depth: Physician-Assisted Suicide and Public OpinionClassic Case File: Nancy CruzanREADINGS:Timothy E. Quill: *"Death and Dignity: A Case of Individualized Decision Making"Dan W. Brock: "Voluntary Active Euthanasia"Daniel Callahan: "When Self-Determination Runs Amok"John Lachs: "When Abstract Moralizing Runs Amok"John D. Arras: "Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Tragic View"James Rachels: "Active and Passive Euthanasia""The Distinction Between Refusing Medical Treatment and Suicide," New York State Task Force on Life and the LawRonald Dworkin, Thomas Nagel, Robert Nozick, John Rawls, Thomas Scanlon, and Judith Jarvis Thomson: "The Philosophers' Brief"Vacco v. Quill, U.S. Supreme CourtWashington v. Glucksberg, U.S. Supreme CourtPART 4. JUSTICE AND HEALTH CARE11. Dividing Up Health Care ResourcesHealth Care in Trouble- In Depth: Unequal Health Care for Minorities- Fact File: U.S. Health CareTheories of Justice- In Depth: Public Opinion: Obtaining Adequate Heath CareA Right to Health CareThe Ethics of RationingClassic Case File: Christine deMeurersREADINGS:Norman Daniels: "Is There a Right to Health Care and, if So, What Does It Encompass?"Allen E. Buchanan: "The Right to a Decent Minimum of Health Care"H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr.: "Rights to Health Care, Social Justice, and Fairness in Health Care Allocations: Frustrations in the Face of Finitude"Raisa Berlin Debar: * Health Care Reform: Lessons from Canada"Norman Daniels: "Rationing Fairly: Programmatic Considerations"Nicholas Rescher: "The Allocation of Exotic Medical Lifesaving Therapy"John Harris: "QALYfying the Value of Life"George J. Annas: "The Prostitute, the Playboy, and the Poet: Rationing Schemes for Organ Transplantation"GlossaryIndex