Biomedical Ethics: A Canadian Focus

Paperback | January 21, 2013

EditorJohnna Fisher

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Biomedical Ethics: A Canadian Focus, second edition, is an anthology of classic and contemporary readings designed to introduce students to the main debates and issues faced by practitioners in the medical professions. The book is organized into nine chapters. Each chapter includes an introduction followed by a selection of articles, many of which explore ethical issues specific to the Canadian health care system. The readings are supported by end-of-chapter case studies, covering the issues highlighted in thearticles; study questions; suggested further readings; and an appendix illustrating how to provide case commentary on an ethical issue.

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Biomedical Ethics: A Canadian Focus, second edition, is an anthology of classic and contemporary readings designed to introduce students to the main debates and issues faced by practitioners in the medical professions. The book is organized into nine chapters. Each chapter includes an introduction followed by a selection of articles, m...

Johnna Fisher is an instructor in the Department of Philosophy at both the University of British Columbia and Langara College. She received her PhD in ethical theory/biomedical ethics from the University of British Columbia in 2001.
Format:PaperbackDimensions:528 pages, 10 × 8 × 0.74 inPublished:January 21, 2013Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195446887

ISBN - 13:9780195446883

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Table of Contents

Preface1. Morality and Ethics1.1 Introduction1.2 Morality and Ethics1.3 Moral Theories2. Medical Decision-Making: Patient Self-Determination and Deciding for Others2.1 Introduction2.2 Who Decides for the Patient? Autonomy, Competence, and SurrogacyAllen E. Buchanan and Dan W. Brock: - Standards of CompetenceChristine Harrison, Nuala P. Kenny, Mona Sidarous, and Mary Rowell: - Involving Children in Medical DecisionsCanadian Medical Association: - Advance Directives for Resuscitation and Other Life-Saving or Life-Sustaining MeasuresSusan Sherwin: - A Relational Approach to Autonomy in Health Care2.3 Informed ConsentRuth R. Faden and Tom L. Beauchamp: - The Concept of Informed ConsentRuth Macklin: - Consent, Coercion, and Conflicts of RightsHoward Brody: - Transparency: Informed Consent in Primary CareJoseph Kaufert and John O'Neil: - Culture, Power, and Informed Consent: The Impact of Aboriginal Health Interpreters on Decision-Making2.4 Differing Opinions of Patient Best InterestKenneth Kipnis: - Quality Care and the Wounds of DiversityRuth Macklin: - Ethical Relativism in a Multicultural Society2.5 Individual Interests versus Family InterestsJohn Hardwig: - What About the Family?Thomas A. Mappes and Jane S. Zembaty: - Patient Choices, Family Interests, and Physician Obligations2.6 Cases- Scott Starson: Refusing Treatment while Incompetent- No Chemotherapy for Anael: Surrogate Refusal of Treatment for a Minor Child- Refusal to Consent to a DNR for a Minor Child: Manitoba Court of Appeal Case Child and Family Services of Central Manitoba v. R.L.- Do Everything for Mom: Advance Directives and a Surrogate's Right to Demand Treatment- Treatment for Jehovah's Witnesses: Adult, Teen, and Infant- Current Wishes Conflict with Prior Instructions3. Management of Medical Information3.1 Introduction3.2 Privacy and ConfidentialityCanadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network: - Privacy: Human Rights, Public Policy, and LawMark Siegler: - Confidentiality in Medicine: A Decrepit ConceptPatricia A. Roche and George J. Annas: - DNA Testing, Banking, and Genetic Privacy NEWMireille Lacroix, Gillian Nycum, Beatrice Godard, and Bartha Maria Knoppers: - Should Physicians Warn Patients' Relatives of Genetic Risks? NEW3.3 Truth-TellingMack Lipkin: - On Telling Truth to PatientsDavid C. Thomasma: - Telling the Truth to Patients: A Clinical Ethics Exploration3.4 CasesLeonard Fleck and Marcia Angell: - Please Don't Tell!: A Case about HIV and Confidentiality- John Reibl: Information Disclosure, Comprehension, and Informed Consent- Do Patients Have a Right to the Information in Their Medical Files? Canadian Supreme Court Case of McInerney v. MacDonald (1992)- Breach of Lawyer-Client Confidentiality Appropriate When Poses Public Danger: Canadian Supreme Court Case of Smith v. Jones (1999)- Breaching Privacy to Save Lives: HCP Knowledge of Possible Risk to Non-Patient Family Members4. Moral Status of the Human Fetus and Infant4.1 Introduction4.2 Positions on Fetal Moral Status: Conservative, Moderate, and LiberalNancy Miller Chenier: - Reproductive Technologies: Royal Commission Final ReportDon Marquis: - Why Abortion Is ImmoralMary Anne Warren: - On the Moral and Legal Status of AbortionJudith Jarvis Thomson: - A Defence of AbortionSusan Sherwin: - Abortion Through a Feminist Ethics Lens4.3 Declining Treatment during Pregnancy and Immediately after BirthJohn Seymour: - A Pregnant Woman's Decision to Decline Treatment: How Should the Law Respond?Mary B.Mahowald: - Decisions Regarding Disabled Newborns4.4 Cases- Prenatal Diagnosis and Abortion or Infanticide through Declining Treatment- Failed Abortion and Offer of Third-Trimester Abortion- Abortion of Suspected Female Fetus- Ms G and Refusal of Treatment while Pregnant- Endangering Behaviour in a Pregnant Woman- Abortion of a Fetus due to Diagnosis of Down Syndrome5. End-of-Life Decision-Making5.1 Introduction5.2 Refusal or Withdrawal of Treatment, Medical Futility, and Terminal SedationHealth Law Institute, Dalhousie University: - Withholding and Withdrawal of Potentially Life-Sustaining TreatmentMark R. Wicclair: - Medical Futility: A Conceptual and Ethical AnalysisJoseph M. Boyle: - Medical Ethics and Double Effect: The Case of Terminal Sedation5.3 Voluntary Active Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted SuicideDan W. Brock: - Voluntary Active EuthanasiaJames Rachels: - Active and Passive EuthanasiaJames V. Lavery, Bernard M. Dickens, Joseph M. Boyle, and Peter A. Singer: - Bioethics for Clinicians: Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDaniel Callahan: - When Self-Determination Runs AmokSusan Wolf: - Gender, Feminism, and Death: Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia5.4 Rights to Die and Duties to DieLeon R. Kass: - Is There a Right to Die?John Hardwig: - Is There a Duty to Die?5.5 Cases- Sue Rodriguez: Physician-Assisted Suicide- Dr Nancy Morrison: (Non)Voluntary Active Euthanasia of an Adult- Tracy Latimer: Nonvoluntary Active Euthanasia of a Minor- Mr McCullough: Recommending Voluntary Passive Euthanasia- Elizabeth and Eric MacDonald: Assisted Suicide- Baby Joseph: HCP Refusal of Futile Treatment Leading to Passive Euthanasia and Parental Disagreement6. Genetic Technology Use6.1 Introduction6.2 EugenicsJonathan Glover: - Eugenics: Some Lessons from the Nazi ExperienceJana Grekul, Harvey Krahn, and Dave Odynak: - Sterilizing the 'Feeble-Minded': Eugenics in Alberta, Canada, 1929-1972Veronica Pearson: - Population Policy and Eugenics in China6.3 Cloning and Stem Cell UsageLeon R. Kass: - Cloning of Human BeingsJohn D. Russell and Andrew S. Irvine: - A Rose Is a Rose, but Clones Will DifferKatrien Devolder: - Creating and Sacrificing Embryos for Stem Cells6.4 Genetic Treatment and EnhancementWalter Glannon: - Genetic EnhancementDan W. Brock: - Genetic EngineeringFrancoise Baylis and Jason Scott Robert: - The Inevitability of Genetic Enhancement6.5 Genetic TestingLeon R. Kass: - Implications of Prenatal Diagnosis for the Human Right to LifeLaura M. Purdy: - Genetics and Reproductive Risk: Can Having Children Be Immoral?Abby Lippman: - Prenatal Genetic Testing and Screening: Constructing Needs and Reinforcing InequitiesTimothy Caulfield: - Direct-to-Consumer Genetics and Health Policy: A Worst-Case Scenario? NEWChristopher F. C. Jordens, Ian H. Kerridge, and Gabrielle N. Samuel: - Direct-to-Consumer Personal Genome Testing: The Problem Is Not Ignorance - It Is Market Failure NEW6.6 CasesDouglas Wahlsten: - Leilani Muir versus the Philosopher King: Eugenics on Trial in Alberta- Changing Socially Undesirable Characteristics- Predictive Testing for Criminal Behaviour: Genes and Environment- Testing for Late-Onset Genetic Disorders in Children- Direct-to-Consumer Personal Genomic Testing for Mother and Adolescent Daughters7. Access to Health Care7.1 Introduction7.2 Macroallocation: Is There a Right to Health Care?Allen E. Buchanan: - The Right to a Decent Minimum of Health CarePat Armstrong: - Managing Care the Canadian WayEdmund D. Pellegrino: - The Commodification of Medical and Health Care: The Moral Consequences of a Paradigm Shift from a Professional to a Market EthicRoy Romanow: - Sustaining Medicare: The Commission on the Future of Health Care in CanadaKai Nielson: - Autonomy, Equality, and a Just Health Care System7.3 Cases- Belinda Stronach Travels to California for Health Care- BC Physicians 'Cherry-Picking' Patients for Ease of Care, Refusing Those in Need- Refusal of Life-Saving Treatment- Failure to Fund a Beneficial Drug- Universal Care: Less Time, Less Efficacy- Multiple Transplants8. Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources8.1 Introduction8.2 Microallocation: The Necessity of RationingNicholas P. Rescher: - The Allocation of Exotic Medical Life-Saving TherapyDaniel Callahan: - Allocating Resources to the Elderly8.3 Increasing Resources Through CommodificationR.R. Kishore: - Human Organs, Scarcities, and Sale: Morality RevisitedNancy Scheper-Hughes: - Keeping an Eye on the Global Traffic in Human OrgansWayne Kondro: - Debate over Online Recruitment of Organ Donors8.4 Cases- No Lungs for Linda- Rationing Services to an Elder Who Is Responsible for His Medical Condition- Buying a Kidney in India but Requesting Canadian After-Care- Does Clifford Olson Deserve Medical Treatment?- Having an Estate Sale of One's Organs9. Research with Humans9.1 Introduction9.2 The Dark History of Human ResearchGregory E. Pence: - The Tuskegee StudyColin A. Ross: - Dr Ewen CameronArthur Schafer: - Biomedical Conflicts of Interest: A Defence of the Sequestration Thesis - Learning from the Cases of Nancy Olivieri and David HealySteven Lewis, Patricia Baird, Robert G. Evans, William A. Ghali, Charles J. Wright, Elaine Gibson, and Francoise Baylis: - Dancing with the Porcupine: Rules for Governing the University-Industry RelationshipBarbara K. Redman, Thomas N. Templin, and Jon. F. Merz: - Research Misconduct Among Clinical Trial Staff NEW9.3 Codes and GuidelinesNuremburg Military Tribunal: - The Nuremburg CodeWorld Medical Association: - Declaration of HelsinkiCanadian Institutes of Health Research: - Tri-council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving HumansSandra L. Titus, James A. Wells, and Lawrence J. Rhoades: - Repairing Research Integrity NEW9.4 Use of Children and Noncompetent Patients in ResearchAlexander M. Capron: - Ethical and Human-Rights Issues in Research on Mental Disorders that May Affect Decision-Making CapacityLainie Freidman Ross: - The Child as Research SubjectGeorge J. Annas: - Baby Fae: The "Anything Goes" School of Human Experimentation9.5 Cases- Stanley Milgram: Lies and Invalid Consent a Necessary Part of the Research- Mr Halushka: Human Research and Harm to Participants- Nonclinical Research on Alzheimer's Patients- Sabotaging a Colleague to Get Ahead- Jesse GelsingerAppendix - Clarifying Contextual Details of the Case: A Case Study Approach NEWGlossaryBibliographyPermissionsIndexNote: All chapters include Study Questions and Suggested Further Readings

Editorial Reviews

"The review of ethical theory in this text is exceptional. . . . The text also does a fine job balancing 'classic' older articles with newer entries." --Ken Kirkwood, University of Western Ontario