Brain Aromatase, Estrogens, and Behavior

Hardcover | November 1, 2012

EditorJacques Balthazart, Gregory Ball

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It is well known that the class of steroid hormones known as estrogens have powerful effects on organs related to reproduction such as the uterus and the breast. What is less well known is that estrogens also profoundly modulate brain function and behavior. Estrogens, such as estradiol, canoccur in brain as the result of ovarian secretion of the hormone into the blood that then finds its way to the brain. In male vertebrates, the testes secrete androgens, such as testosterone, into the blood and this class of steroid hormones can be converted into estrogens in the brain via the actionof the enzyme aromatase which is expressed in the male brain in many species. Finally estradiol can be synthesized de novo from cholesterol as it has been shown in a variety of species that all the enzymes required to synthesize estrogens are expressed in the brain. This book collects chapters by experts in the field that considers, how estradiol is synthesized in the brain and what its effects are on a variety of behaviors. Special attention is paid to the enzyme aromatase that is distributed in discrete regions of the brain and is highly regulated in a sexspecific and seasonal specific manner. Recently it has become clear that estrogens can act in the brain at two very different time scales, one is rather long lasting (days to weeks) and involves the modulation of gene transcription by the hormone-receptor complex. A second mode of action is muchquicker and involves the action of estrogens on cell membranes that can result in effects on second messenger systems and ultimately behavior within minutes. Thus this book highlights novel views of estrogen action that are still under-appreciated namely that estrogens have significant effects onthe male brain and that they can act on two very different times scales. This volume will be of interest to both basic researchers and clinicians interested in the action of estrogens.

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It is well known that the class of steroid hormones known as estrogens have powerful effects on organs related to reproduction such as the uterus and the breast. What is less well known is that estrogens also profoundly modulate brain function and behavior. Estrogens, such as estradiol, canoccur in brain as the result of ovarian secret...

Jacques Balthazart is Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at University of Liege. Gregory Ball is Vice Dean for Science and Research Infrastructure and Professor of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Johns Hopkins University.

other books by Jacques Balthazart

Format:HardcoverDimensions:560 pages, 9.25 × 6.12 × 0.98 inPublished:November 1, 2012Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199841195

ISBN - 13:9780199841196

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Table of Contents

Part I: Historical Origins and Conceptual Basis of the Field1. F. Naftolin: The aromatization hypothesis and the discovery of estrogen synthesis by brain cellsPart II: Aromatase, Its Brain Distribution and Regulation2. G.V. Callard, S.R. Greytak, A. Novillo, K.A. Cotter and R. Meyer: Brain aromatase in fishes: Historical perspective and comparative approaches3. C.E. Roselli: The Distribution and regulation of aromatase in the mammalian brain: from mice to monkeys4. A. Conleyk, V.N. Orr, B.C. Trainor, T. Berger and A. Huges: Multiple forms of aromatase in suiforms: tissue distribution, regulation and functional significance5. A. Biegon, J. Fowler, S. Kim, J. Logan, D. Pareto and G.J. Wang: Regional distribution of aromatase in the human brain6. C.J. Saldhanha, L. Remage-Healey and B.A. Schlinger: Neuroanatomical distribution of aromatase in birds: cellular and subcellular analyses7. E. Pellegrini, C. Vaillant, N. Diotel, P. Benquet, F. Brion and O. Kah: Expression, regulation and potential functions of aromatase in radial glial cells of the fish brain8. N. Harada: Molecular mechanisms controlling brain aromatase expressionPart III: Behavioral (Genomic) Effects of Locally Produced Estrogen in the Brain9. L.G. Clemens: The origin of the aromatization hypothesis 1970-199010. B.A. Schlinger and J. Balthazart: Aromatase and behavior: concepts gained from studies of aromatase in the avian brain11. S.A. Heimovics, H.B. Fokidis and K.K. Soma: Brain Aromatase and Territorial Aggression Across the Seasons in Male Song Sparrows12. R.E. Cohen and J. Wade: Testosterone metabolism in reptiles13. R.W. Krohmer: Aromatase, low temperature dormancy and reproduction in the red-sided garter snake14. G.E. Gillies: Differential actions of estrogens in the male and female brain: a case for sex-specific medicinesPart IV: Aromatase and Sexual Differentiation15. P. Sodersten: A historical and personal perspective on the aromatization revolution: Steinach confirmed16. M.M. McCarthy, C.L. Wright and A.T.M. Konkle: Aromatase and sexual differentiation of the rodent brain: The old, the new and the unexpected17. J. Bakker: Aromatase and sexual differentiation: lessons from the aromatase and alpha-fetoprotein knockout mice18. E. Adkins-Regan: Aromatase, estrogens and differentiation of sexual behavior and partner preference in birdsPart V: Aromatase and Brain Protection or Repair19. I. Azcoitia, M.A. Arevalo and L.M. Garcia-Segura: Photoperiodic regulation of estrogen-dependent aggressionPart VI: Rapid Changes in Aromatase Activity and Rapid Effects of Estrogens20. S.A. Laredo and B.C. Trainor: Photoperiodic regulation of estrogen-dependent aggression21. T.D. Charlier, C.A. Cornil, G.F. Ball and J. Balthazart: Cellular mechanisms controlling rapid changes in brain aromatase activity22. C.A. Cornil, M.J. Dickens, G.F. Ball and J. Balthazart: Rapid modulation of aromatase activity by social and environmental stimuli in quail23. L.A. Tremere and R. Pinaud: Modulation of Central Auditory Processing by a Brain-Generated Estrogen: Rapid Effects on Neural Coding, Discrimination and Behavior24. L. Remage-Healey: Acute synthesis and action of estrogens in communication circuits25. R.R. Thompson and L.A. Mangiamele: Rapid Effects of Estradiol on Behavioral and Physiological Responses Related to Reproduction in Male Goldfish26. J. Balthazart and G.F. Ball: Concluding statements and current challengesIndex