Brain Development: Normal Processes and the Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine

Hardcover | August 24, 2006

EditorMichael W. Miller

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This is the first book about both normal development of the nervous system and how early exposure to alcohol and nicotine interferes with this development. The developing nervous system is highly dynamic and vulnerable to genetic and epigenetic factors that can be additive or synergistic.Disruption of normal brain development leads to an array of developmental disorders. One of the most common of these is mental retardation, the prime cause of which is prenatal exposure to alcohol. As chapters in this book show, alcohol has direct effects on the developing neural system and itaffects genetic regulation. Another common neurotoxin is nicotine, and it is discussed in this book for three reasons: (1) the number of adolescents who smoke cigarettes is rising in some populations; (2) prenatal exposure to nicotine affects neurotransmitter systems that are critical for normalbrain development and cognition; and (3) prenatal exposure to nicotine is often accompanied by prenatal exposure to alcohol.LThe mature brain is the culmination of an orderly sequence of the basic ontogenetic processes--cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and death. Neural stem cellsand progenitors proliferate in discrete sites; then, young neurons migrate long distances to their residences where they form neural networks. During this sequence many immature cells die, presumably eliminating unsuitable or non-competitive cells. Each process is regulated by genetic andenvironmental factors. When this regulation goes awry, a dysmorphic and dysfunctional brain results. Though this can be tragic in clinical settings, in experimental contexts it provides keen insight into normal brain development.LThe book is divided into three parts. The first describes neuralontogeny in the normal brain. The second and third deal with the consequences of early exposure to alcohol and nicotine. Though there are similarities in the effects of these two toxins, there are also intriguing differences. The commonalities reflect the plasticity and resilience of thedeveloping brain while the differences point to the targeted effects of the two toxins. Exploring these effects brings a richer appreciation of brain development. The book will be of interest to neuroscientists, developmental biologists, teratologists, pharmacologists, toxicologists, neurologists,neuropsychologists, and to their students and trainees.

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This is the first book about both normal development of the nervous system and how early exposure to alcohol and nicotine interferes with this development. The developing nervous system is highly dynamic and vulnerable to genetic and epigenetic factors that can be additive or synergistic.Disruption of normal brain development leads to...

Michael W. Miller is at SUNY-Upstate Medical University, Syracuse.

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Format:HardcoverDimensions:424 pages, 7.2 × 10.2 × 0.98 inPublished:August 24, 2006Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195183134

ISBN - 13:9780195183139

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Table of Contents

Michael W. Miller: Suny-Upstate Medical University: Acknowledgments1. Michael W. Miller: Models of neurotoxicity provide unique insight into normal developmentPart INormal Development2. Bernhard Suter, Pradeep G. Bhide: Harvard Medical School: Cell proliferation3. Huaiyu Hu: SUNY-Upstate Medical University: Neuronal migration4. C. David Mintz, Iddil H. Bekirov, Tonya R. Anderson, and Deanna L. Benson: Mount Sinai School of Medicine: Neuronal differentiation: from axons to synapses5. Stevens K. Rehen and Jerold J.M. Chun: Scripps Research Institute: Cell death6. Sandra M. Mooney: SUNY-Upstate Medical University and George I. Henderson: University of Texas Health Sciences Center: Intracellular pathways of neuronal death7. Barbara L. Finlay, Jeremy C. Yost, and Desmond T. Cheung: Cornell University: Developmental disorders and evolutionary expectations: mechanisms of resiliencePart IIEthanol-affected development8. Claire D. Coles: Emory University School of Medicine: Prenatal alcohol exposure and human development9. Susanna L. Fryer, Christie L. McGee, Andrea D. Spadoni, and Edward P. Riley: San Diego State University: Influence of alcohol on the structure of the developing human brain10. Joanna H. Sliwowska, Xingqi Zhang and Joanne Weinberg: University of British Columbia: Prenatal ethanol exposure and fetal programming: implications for endocrine and immune development and long-term health11. Michael W. Miller: Early exposure to ethanol affects and the proliferation of neuronal precursors12. W. Michael Zawada and Mita Das; WZ, MD: University of Colorado Health Sciences Center: Effects on ethanol on the regulation of cell cycle in neural stem cells13. Julie A. Siegenthaler and Michael W. Miller: SUNY-Upstate Medical University: Mechanisms of ethanol-induced alterations in neuronal migration14. Tara A. Lindsley: Albany Medical School: Effects of ethanol on mechanisms regulating neuronal process outgrowth15. Michael W. Miller and Marla B. Bruns: SUNY-Upstate Medical University and Paula L. Hoffman: University of Colorado Health Sciences Center: Neuronal survival is compromised by ethanol: extracellular mediators16. Sandra M. Mooney, Michael W. Miller, and George I. Henderson: Intracellular events in neuronal death targeted by ethanol17. Susan M. Smith and Katherine A. Debelak-Kragtorp: University of Wisconsin School of Medicine: Neural crest and developmental exposure to alcohol18. Consuelo Guerri: Instituto de Investigaciones Citologicas: Glial targets of developmental exposure to ethanolPart IIINicotine-affected development19. Jennifer A. Willford, Nancy L. Day, and Marie D. Cornelius: University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine: Tobacco use during pregnancy: epidemiology and effects on offspring20. Brenda M. Elliot and Neil E. Grunberg: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences: Prenatal nicotine exposure and animal behavior21. Huibert D. Mansvelder: Vrije Universitat and Lorna W. Role: Columbia University: Neuronal receptors for nicotine: functional diversity and developmental changes22. Kurt F. Hauser, Nazira El-Hage, Shreya Buch, Gregory N. Barnes, Henrietta S. Bada, and James R. Pauly: University of Kentucky: Neural precursors as preferential targets for drug abuse: long term consequences and latent susceptibility to CNS disorders23. Frances M. Leslie, Layla Azam, Kathy Gallardo, Kathryn O'Leary, Ryan Franke, and Shahrdad Lotfipour: University of California College of Medicine, Irvine: Nocotinic receptor regulation of developing catecholamine systems