Brain Organization of Language and Cognitive Processes by Alfredo ArdilaBrain Organization of Language and Cognitive Processes by Alfredo Ardila

Brain Organization of Language and Cognitive Processes

EditorAlfredo Ardila, Feggy Ostrosky-solis

Paperback | October 5, 2011

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Neuropsychology has presented a particularly formidable array of devel­ opments during recent years. The number of methods, theoretical ap­ proaches, and publications has been steadily increasing, permitting a step-by-step approach to a deeper understanding of the tremendously complex relationships existing between brain and behavior. This volume was planned as a collection of papers that, in one way or another, present new research and clinical perspectives or interpretations about brain-behavior relationships. Some chapters present new research in specific topics, others summarize the evidence for a particular the­ oretical position, and others simply review the area and suggest new perspectives of research. Consistent with the spirit in which the book was planned, the authors present and propose new avenues for developing neuropsychology and understanding the organization of cognitive activity. Part I is devoted to basic theoretical and technical approaches in studying brain organization of cognitive processes. Hanlon and Brown ("Microgenesis: Historical Review and Current Studies") present an over­ view of some clinical and experimental work from the standpoint of mi­ crogenetic theory. Microgenesis is considered to be the structural devel­ opment of a cognition through qualitatively different stages. The authors discuss the growing dissatisfaction with both the old center and pathway theories and the newer modular or componental accounts. They also ex­ plore how micro genesis can be extended to the interpretation of symp­ toms of brain damage in developing a structural model of hierarchic levels through which the process of cognitive function unfolds.
Title:Brain Organization of Language and Cognitive ProcessesFormat:PaperbackPublished:October 5, 2011Publisher:Springer USLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:1461280885

ISBN - 13:9781461280880

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Table of Contents

I: Theoretical and Technical Approaches.- 1 Microgenesis: Historical Review and Current Studies.- Early Studies.- Perceptgenesis.- Clinical Applications.- Experimental Studies.- Conclusion.- References.- 2 Fractionation of Spatial Cognition following Focal and Diffuse Brain Damage.- Historical Perspective.- Visual Attention.- Parts and Wholes.- Studies of Visuospatial Processing Using Hierarchical Stimuli.- Frequency and Severity of Visuospatial Deficits.- Intrahemispheric Dissociations in Visuospatial Processing.- Toward an Integration of Intra- and Interhemispheric Dissociations in Visuospatial Processing.- Fractionation of Spatial Cognition in Diffuse Brain Pathology.- Conclusion.- References.- 3 Anatomical and Physiological Correlations and Neuroimaging Techniques in Language Disorders.- Autopsy Location.- Localization through Head Injuries.- Surgical Localization.- Cortical Stimulation.- Electroencephalography and Evoked Potentials.- Isotope Localization of Lesions.- Computerized Tomographic (CT) Lesion Localization.- Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) Localization.- Positron Emission Tomography (PET).- Single-Photon Computerized Tomography (SPECT).- Magnetic Resonance Imager (MRI).- Discussion and Conclusion.- References.- 4 ERPs and Advances in Neurolinguistics.- Overview of ERP Methodology.- ERP versus Reaction Time.- ERPs and Some Research Issues in Neurolinguistics.- Lexical Semantics.- Semantics versus Syntax.- Reading in Normals.- Development of Reading Skills.- Language Development.- Second-Language Acquisition.- Issues in Clinical Neurolinguistics.- Summary.- References.- II: Development and Dissolution of Language.- 5 Disorders in Language Acquisition and Cerebral Maturation: A Neurophysiological Perspective.- Organic and Functional Syndromes.- Basic Embryologic Considerations.- Analyzers and Stereotypes.- Normal Language Organization: Physiologic Stable States.- Abnormal Language Organization: Pathologic Stable States.- Kinesthetic Motor Verbal Analyzer.- Verbal Analyzer.- Conclusions.- References.- 6 Speech and Language Alterations in Dementia Syndromes.- Methodology.- Assessment.- Participants.- Results.- Normal Control Subjects.- Dementia of the Alzheimer Type.- Parkinson's Disease.- Multi-Infarct Dementia.- Discussion.- Conclusions.- References.- III: Oral and Written Language Disorders.- 7 Mechanisms Underlying Aphasic Transformations.- The Garrett Model.- The Augmentations of the Garrett Model.- Lexical Substitutions.- Lexical Blends.- Phonemic Substitution.- Phonemic Transposition.- Constraints on Errors Conditioned by Representative/Computational Knowledge.- Summary.- References.- 8 Alexia and Agraphia in Spanish Speakers: CAT Correlations and Interlinguistic Analysis.- Method.- Subjects.- Procedure.- Instrument.- Results.- Population with Cerebral Damage and Normal Population.- Patients with Right-Hemisphere Lesions and Patients with Left-Hemisphere Lesions.- Intrahemispheric Comparisons.- Quantification of the Type of Errors.- Scores on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure.- Superimposition of Scans.- Discussion.- Patients with Right and Left Lesions.- Intrahemispheric Comparisons.- Topography of the Clinical Findings.- An Interlinguistic Consideration.- References.- 9 Semantic Aphasia Reconsidered.- Case Reports.- Patient 1.- Patient 2.- Testing Procedure.- Results.- Discussion.- References.- IV: Basal Ganglia and Cognitive Activity.- 10 Cognitive Effects of Adrenal Autografting in Parkinson's Disease.- Pathology and Pathogenesis.- Treatment.- Neurosurgical Treatment.- Pharmacological Treatment.- Tissue Transplants.- Adrenal Medullary Grafts in PD Patients.- Surgical Technique.- Neuropsychological Findings.- General Considerations.- References.- 11 The Striatum as a Temporary Memory Store.- Involvement of the Neostriatum in Memory.- The Overtraining Effect.- Conclusions.- References.- V: Recovery from Brain Damage.- 12 Development and Plasticity in the Central Nervous System: Organismic and Environmental Influences.- Plasticity and Levels of Analysis of CNS Functions.- Environmental and Behavioral Factors "Shape" CNS Morphology.- Temporal Factors also Important in Predicting the Outcome of Brain Damage.- Adaptative and Maladaptative Anomalous Growth in Response to CNS Injury.- Behavioral Consequences of Lesions Early in Life vis-à-vis Injuries in Maturity.- Important Individual Differences in Response to Brain Injury That Are Not Adequately Studied.- Summary and Concluding Remarks.- References.