Brain Tumors: Biology, Pathology and Clinical References by Davide SchifferBrain Tumors: Biology, Pathology and Clinical References by Davide Schiffer

Brain Tumors: Biology, Pathology and Clinical References

byDavide SchifferContribution byM.T. Giordana, A. Mauro

Paperback | September 27, 2011

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Neurooncology has become a science of such great proportions and indefinite limits as to include branches which widely diverge from one another. Therefore, it is not an easy task to fit it all into the narrow framework of a book, though the collaboration among scientists compensates partly for the varying depths of knowledge and ex­ perience in the individual disciplines. The principal characteristic of this work, how­ ever, is in casting "pathology" as the common nosographic link. Though scientific progress has brought us well past the nosography of brain tu­ of departure, the area of mutual understanding to mors, pathology remains the point which all students of neurooncology refer when laying out diagnostic, therapeutic, and research schedules. Neurologists, neurosurgeons, and neuroradiologists orient themselves only by referring to tumor types. Neurooncology treatises require ever greater numbers of authors in order to cover the different subject areas with uniform authority. Excellent texts are available today for this purpose. The present book is not, and does not wish to be, a treatise but rather aims at presenting different aspects of neurooncology from the perspective of pathology and its biological and clinical correlates. It expresses the author's experi­ ence in the study of brain tumors and their pathology and clinical characteristics. The emphasis dedicated to the subjects relates to the clinicopathological and theore­ tical importance.
Title:Brain Tumors: Biology, Pathology and Clinical ReferencesFormat:PaperbackPublished:September 27, 2011Publisher:Springer Berlin HeidelbergLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3642644457

ISBN - 13:9783642644450

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Table of Contents

1 Cytogenesis of the Central Nervous System.- 1.1 Neurogenesis and Gliogenesis.- 1.2 Gliogenesis in Adult Animals.- 1.3 Development of the Cerebellar Cortex.- 1.4 Radial Glia and Ependyma.- 1.5 Genes Controlling Nervous System Development.- 2 Factors of the Transformation Process.- 2.1 Genetics and Molecular Biology.- 2.2 Familial Incidence of Tumors.- 2.3 Congenital Tumors.- 2.4 Risk Factors: Epidemiological Data.- 2.4.1 Family Characteristics.- 2.4.2 Individual Factors.- 2.4.3 Multiple Sclerosis.- 2.4.4 Virus.- 2.4.5 Head Injuries.- 2.4.6 Irradiation.- 2.4.7 Nonprofessional Exogenous Exposures.- 2.4.8 Professional Exogenous Exposures.- 2.4.9 Multiple Tumors.- 3 Experimental Tumors.- 3.1 Chemical Carcinogenesis.- 3.1.1 Topically Acting Carcinogens.- 3.1.2 Resorptive Carcinogens.- 3.1.2.1 Pathogenesis of Nitrosourea-Induced Tumors.- 3.1.2.2 Cellular Composition.- 3.1.2.3 Vascularization of ENU-Induced Tumors.- 3.1.2.4 Utilization of MNU-ENU Models.- 3.2 Viral Carcinogenesis.- 3.3 Transplantable Animal Models.- 3.4 Gene Transfer Models of Neural Tumors.- 4 Antigens of Phenotypic Expression and Differentiation Markers.- 4.1 Brain Tumor-Associated Antigens.- 4.2 Antigens Employed in the Histological Diagnosis of Brain Tumors.- 4.2.1 Glial Markers.- 4.2.1.1 S-100 Protein.- 4.2.1.2 Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein.- 4.2.1.3 Glutamine Synthetase.- 4.2.1.4 Carbonic Anhydrase.- 4.2.1.5 Myelin Basic Protein.- 4.2.1.6 Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein.- 4.2.2 Neuronal Markers.- 4.2.2.1 Neuronal-Specific Enolase.- 4.2.2.2 Neurofilaments.- 4.2.2.3 Synaptophysin and Chromogranin.- 4.2.3 Markers Nonspecific for the Nervous System.- 4.2.4 Vessel Markers.- 4.2.5 Other Intermediate Filaments.- 4.2.6 Epithelial Membrane Antigens.- 4.2.7 Markers for Cerebral Metastases.- 5 Pathology of the Host-Tumor Interaction.- 5.1 Peritumoral Changes.- 5.1.1 Glial Reaction.- 5.1.2 Included Neurons.- 5.1.3 Ventricular Walls.- 5.2 Regressive Events in the Tumor.- 5.3 Cerebral Edema.- 5.3.1 Definition and Pathogenesis.- 5.3.2 Morphological Changes and Sequelae.- 5.4 Calcifications.- 5.5 Immune Response.- 6 Classification and Nosography of Neuroepithelial Tumors.- 7 The Concept of Malignancy: Anaplasia, Cell Proliferation, Metastasis.- 7.1 General Considerations.- 7.2 Cell Kinetics.- 7.3 Metastasis.- 7.4 Expansion and Invasiveness.- 7.4.1 Invasion Mechanisms.- 8 Descriptive Epidemiology of Primary Nervous System Tumors.- 8.1 General Data.- 8.1.1 Mortality.- 8.1.2 Incidence.- 8.2 Epidemiology of Intracranial Tumors.- 8.2.1 Histological Type.- 8.2.2 Age.- 8.2.3 Sex.- 8.2.4 Race.- 8.3 Epidemiology of Intraspinal Tumors.- 9 Astrocytic Tumors.- 9.1 Nosological Problems.- 9.2 Astrocytic Tumors of the Cerebral Hemispheres.- 9.2.1 Astrocytomas.- 9.2.1.1 Frequency, Age, Site and Clinical Features.- 9.2.1.2 Macroscopic Appearance and Imaging.- 9.2.1.3 Microscopic Appearance.- 9.2.1.4 Pilocytic Astrocytoma.- 9.2.1.5 Anaplastic Variant.- 9.2.1.6 Prognosis and Treatment of Hemispheric Astrocytomas.- 9.2.2 Glioblastoma Multiforme.- 9.2.2.1 General Considerations.- 9.2.2.2 Frequency, Age, Site and Clinical Features.- 9.2.2.3 Macroscopic Appearance and Imaging.- 9.2.2.4 Microscopic Appearance.- 9.2.2.5 Tumor Spreading.- 9.2.2.6 Differential Diagnosis.- 9.2.2.7 Giant Cell Variant.- 9.2.2.8 Gliosarcoma.- 9.2.2.9 Blood Vessel Architecture and Angiogenesis in Gliomas.- 9.2.2.10 Cellular Kinetics.- 9.2.2.11 Metabolism.- 9.2.2.12 Prognosis and Treatment.- 9.2.3 Gliomatosis Cerebri.- 9.2.4 Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma.- 9.2.4.1 Macroscopic Appearance.- 9.2.4.2 Microscopic Appearance.- 9.2.4.3 Prognosis.- 9.2.5 Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma (Tuberous Sclerosis).- 9.2.6 Astroblastoma.- 9.3 Astrocytic Tumors of the Midline.- 9.3.1 Astrocytoma of the Optic Nerve.- 9.3.2 Astrocytoma of the Chiasm.- 9.3.3 Brain Stem Astrocytomas.- 9.3.4 Other Midline Astrocytomas.- 9.3.5 Cerebellar Astrocytomas.- 9.3.5.1 Nosographic Considerations.- 9.3.5.2 Frequency, Age.- 9.3.5.3 Macroscopic Appearance.- 9.3.5.4 Microscopic Appearance.- 9.3.5.5 Rosenthal's Fibers.- 9.3.5.6 Malignant Transformation, Prognosis.- 9.4 Astrocytic Tumors of the Spinal Cord.- 9.4.1 Frequency, Age.- 9.4.2 Macroscopic and Microscopic Appearance.- 10 Oligodendroglial Tumors.- 10.1 Oligodendroglioma.- 10.1.1 Frequency, Age, Site and Clinical Features.- 10.1.2 Macroscopic Appearance and Imaging.- 10.1.3 Microscopic Appearance.- 10.2 Presence of Astrocytes and the Problem of Mixed Gliomas: Oiigoastrocytoma.- 10.3 Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma and Prognosis.- 11 Ependymal Tumors.- 11.1 Ependymoma.- 11.1.1 Classification Problems.- 11.1.2 Frequency, Age, Sex, Site and Clinical Features.- 11.1.3 Macroscopic Appearance and Imaging.- 11.1.4 Microscopic Appearance.- 11.1.5 Regressive Events.- 11.1.6 Immunohistochemistry.- 11.1.7 Electron Microscopy.- 11.1.8 Anaplastic Ependymoma.- 11.1.9 Spread Via the Cerebrospinal Fluid.- 11.1.10 Treatment and Prognosis.- 11.2 Subependymoma.- 11.3 Ependymoblastoma.- 12 Choroid Plexus Tumors.- 12.1 Plexus-Papilloma.- 12.1.1 Frequency, Age, Site and Clinical Features.- 12.1.2 Macroscopic Appearance and Imaging.- 12.1.3 Microscopic Appearance.- 12.1.4 Treatment and Prognosis.- 12.2 Malignant Variant (Plexus Carcinoma).- 13 Tumors Composed of Neural Cells.- 13.1 Ganglioglioma (Gangliocytoma).- 13.1.1 Frequency, Age, Site and Clinical Features.- 13.1.2 Macroscopic Appearance and Imaging.- 13.1.3 Microscopic Appearance.- 13.1.4 Malignant Transformation (Malignant Ganglioglioma).- 13.1.5 Prognosis.- 13.2 Dysplastic Gangliocytoma of the Cerebellum.- 13.3 Infantile Desmoplastic Ganglioglioma -Desmoplastic Infantile Astrocytoma.- 13.4 Central Neurocytoma.- 13.5 Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumors.- 13.6 Olfactory Neuroblastoma.- 14 Pineal Gland Tumors.- 14.1 The Pineal Gland.- 14.2 Pineal Gland Tumors.- 14.2.1 Pineocytoma.- 14.2.1.1 Macroscopic Appearance.- 14.2.1.2 Microscopic Appearance.- 14.2.1.3 Treatment and Prognosis.- 14.2.2 Pinealoblastoma.- 14.2.2.1 Macroscopic Appearance.- 14.2.2.2 Microscopic Appearance.- 14.2.2.3 Prognosis.- 14.2.4 Trilateral Retinoblastoma.- 14.3 Pineal Cysts.- 15 Embryonal Tumors.- 15.1 Medulloepithelioma.- 15.2 Medulloblastoma.- 15.2.1 Frequency, Age and Clinical Features.- 15.2.2 Macroscopic Appearance and Imaging.- 15.2.3 Microscopic Appearance.- 15.2.3.1 Desmoplastic Variant.- 15.2.3.2 Melanotic Medulloblastoma.- 15.2.3.3 Medullomyoblastoma.- 15.2.4 DNA Content and Pathology.- 15.2.5 Problem of Differentiation.- 15.2.6 Prognosis, Recurrence, Metastasis.- 15.2.7 Medulloblastoma of Adults.- 15.3 Neuroblastoma.- 15.3.1 Macroscopic Appearance.- 15.3.2 Microscopic Appearance.- 15.3.3 Prognosis.- 15.4 Polar Spongioblastoma.- 15.5 Appendix: Tumors of the Retina.- 15.5.1 Retinoblastoma.- 16 Glomus Tumors, Paragangliomas.- 16.1 Site, Age, and Clinical Features.- 16.2 Macroscopic Appearance and Imaging.- 16.3 Microscopic Appearance.- 16.4 Prognosis.- 17 Tumors of the Cranial and Spinal Nerves.- 17.1 Neurinoma (Schwannoma).- 17.1.1 Frequency, Age, Sex.- 17.1.2 Site.- 17.1.3 Clinical Features.- 17.1.4 Macroscopic Appearance and Imaging.- 17.1.5 Microscopic Appearance.- 17.1.6 Cellular Schwannoma.- 17.1.7 In Vitro Culture.- 17.2 Neurofibromas.- 17.2.1 Plexiform Neurofibromas.- 17.3 Granular Cell Tumors.- 17.4 Neurothekeoma.- 17.5 Perineurioma.- 17.6 Prognosis, Malignancy.- 18 Tumors of the Meninges.- 18.1 Meningiomas.- 18.1.1 General Considerations and Nomenclature.- 18.1.2 Frequency.- 18.1.3 Age.- 18.1.4 Sex.- 18.1.5 Familial Tendency.- 18.1.6 Trauma and Irradiation.- 18.1.7 Association with Other Tumors.- 18.1.8 Site.- 18.1.9 Multiple Meningiomas.- 18.1.10 Clinical Features and Imaging.- 18.1.11 Macroscopic Appearance.- 18.1.12 Microscopic Appearance.- 18.1.12.1 Angiomatous Meningiomas.- 18.1.12.2 Malignant Meningioma.- 18.1.13 Metaplasia in Meningiomas.- 18.1.14 Regressive Changes.- 18.1.15 Calcifications.- 18.1.16 Electron Microscopy.- 18.1.17 Receptors for Steroid Hormones.- 18.1.18 In Vitro Culture.- 18.1.19 Growth Modality.- 18.1.20 Metastasis.- 18.1.21 Prognosis, Treatment.- 18.2 Other Mesenchymal Tumors of the Meninges.- 18.2.1 Benign Neoplasms.- 18.2.2 Malignant Neoplasms.- 18.2.2.1 Hemangiopericytoma.- 18.2.2.2 Fibrosarcoma.- 18.2.2.3 Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma.- 18.2.2.4 Primary Meningeal Sarcomatosis.- 18.2.2.5 Primitive Melanoblastosis of the Leptomeninges.- 18.2.2.6 Primary Melanotic Lesions.- 18.2.2.7 Meningiomatosis or Meningoangiomatosis.- 18.2.2.8 Miscellaneous.- 19 Mesenchymal Tumors.- 19.1 Chordomas.- 19.1.1 General Considerations.- 19.1.2 Macroscopic Appearance.- 19.1.3 Microscopic Appearance.- 19.1.4 Electron Microscopy.- 19.1.5 Differential Diagnosis.- 19.1.6 Prognosis.- 19.2 Chondroma.- 19.3 Chondrosarcomas.- 19.4 Osteomas.- 19.5 Osteosarcoma.- 20 Vascular Tumors.- 20.1 Capillary Hemangioblastoma.- 20.1.1 Biological Data.- 20.1.2 Macroscopic Appearance.- 20.1.3 Microscopic Appearance.- 20.1.4 Regressive Events.- 20.1.5 Electron Microscopy Study.- 20.1.6 Metastasis, Recurrences, Prognosis.- 20.1.7 Associated Polycythemia.- 20.1.8 Differential Diagnosis.- 21 Tumors and Dysontogenetic Lesions.- 21.1 Germ Cell Tumors.- 21.1.1 Frequency, Age, Sites, Clinical Features, Imaging.- 21.1.2 Pathogenesis.- 21.1.3 Germinoma.- 21.1.3.1 Macroscopic Appearance.- 21.1.3.2 Microscopic Appearance.- 21.1.3.3 Prognosis, Treatment.- 21.1.4 Embryonal Carcinoma.- 21.1.5 Choriocarcinoma.- 21.1.6 Endodermal Sinus Tumor.- 21.1.7 Teratocarcinoma.- 21.1.8 Immunohistochemical and Chemical Characterization.- 21.2 Teratomas.- 21.2.1 Frequency, Age, Site.- 21.2.2 Macroscopic Appearance.- 21.2.3 Microscopic Appearance.- 21.2.4 Prognosis, Recurrence.- 21.3 Tumors with Muscle Cells.- 21.3.1 Medullomyoblastoma.- 21.3.2 Primitive CNS Rhabdomyosarcoma.- 21.3.3 Other Tumors.- 21.3.4 Rhabdoid Tumors.- 21.4 Dermo-epidermoid Cysts.- 21.4.1 Nosography, Pathogenesis.- 21.4.2 Frequency, Age, Site and Clinical Features.- 21.4.3 Macroscopic Appearance and Imaging.- 21.4.4 Microscopic Appearance.- 21.4.5 Prognosis, Sequelae.- 21.5 Craniopharyngioma and Epithelial Cysts.- 21.5.1 Embryogenetic Aspects.- 21.5.2 Incidence.- 21.5.3 Site.- 21.5.3.1 Intraventricular Tumors.- 21.5.4 Clinical Aspects.- 21.5.5 Macroscopic Appearance.- 21.5.6 Microscopic Appearance.- 21.5.6.1 Electron Microscopy and Immunohistochemistry.- 21.5.6.2 Calcification.- 21.5.6.3 Cystic Component.- 21.5.7 Adjacent Tissue.- 21.5.8 Relationships of Craniopharyngiomas with Rathke's Fissure Cysts.- 21.5.9 Prognosis, Treatment.- 21.6 Neuroepithelial and Non-Neuroepithelial Cysts.- 21.6.1 Colloid Cysts of the Third Ventricle.- 21.6.1.1 Frequency, Age, Site.- 21.6.1.2 Macroscopic Appearance.- 21.6.1.3 Microscopic Appearance.- 21.6.2 Spinal Enterogenous Cysts.- 21.6.3 Arachnoid Cysts.- 21.7 Lipomas.- 21.7.1 Frequency, Age, Site.- 21.7.2 Macroscopic Appearance.- 21.7.3 Microscopic Appearance.- 21.7.4 Prognosis, Treatment.- 21.8 Hamartomas, Ectopias, and Ectopic Tumors.- 21.8.1 Hamartoma of the Hypothalamus.- 21.8.2 Granule Cell Tumors.- 21.8.3 Meningeal Gliomas.- 21.8.4 Ec topic Gliomas and Neural Hamartomas.- 21.9 Hamartomas or Vascular Malformations.- 21.9.1 Clinical Features.- 21.9.2 Capillary Teleangectasias.- 21.9.3 Cavernous Angioma.- 21.9.4 Arteriovenous Malformation.- 21.9.4.1 Dural Arteriovenous Malformations.- 21.9.5 Venous Malformations.- 22 Phakomatosis and Dysgenetic Syndromes.- 22.1 Tuberous Sclerosis (Bourneville's Disease).- 22.2 Neurofibromatosis.- 22.2.1 Neurofibromatosis-1 or von Recklinghausen's Disease.- 22.2.1.1 Clinical Course.- 22.2.2 Neurofibromatosis-2.- 22.2.3 Associated Lesions of a Dysplastic Nature.- 22.3 Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome.- 22.4 Sturge-Weber Syndrome.- 22.5 Other Dysgenetic Syndromes.- 23 Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas.- 23.1 Frequency, Age, Site, and Clinical Features.- 23.2 Macroscopic Aspect and Imaging.- 23.3 Microscopic Appearance.- 23.4 Epidural Lymphomas.- 23.5 Lymphomas in AIDS.- 23.6 Prognosis, Treatment.- 24 Metastases.- 24.1 Frequency.- 24.2 Sex.- 24.3 Age.- 24.4 Metastatic Pathways.- 24.5 Macroscopic Appearance and Imaging.- 24.6 Microscopic Appearance.- 24.7 Differential Diagnosis.- 24.8 Prognosis and Therapy.- 24.9 Carcinomatous Meningitis.- 24.10 Spinal Metastases.- 25 Biological Basis of Therapies.- 25.1 Radiotherapy.- 25.1.1 Cellular Response to Ionizing Radiation.- 25.1.2 Therapeutic Studies with Low Linear Energy Transfer Radiation on Experimental Brain Tumors.- 25.1.3 Methods of Improving the Therapeutic Ratio in Radiotherapy of Brain Tumors.- 25.1.3.1 Altered Fractionation.- 25.1.3.2 Brachytherapy.- 25.1.3.3 Association with Chemotherapeutic Agents.- 25.1.3.4 Radiosensitizers.- 25.1.3.5 Hyperthermia.- 25.1.3.6 Photoradiation Therapy.- 25.1.3.7 High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation.- 25.1.3.8 Radioprotectors.- 25.2 Chemotherapy.- 25.2.1 General Concepts.- 25.2.2 Chemosensitivity and Chemoresistance in Brain Tumors.- 25.2.3 Drug Delivery to Brain Tumors.- 25.2.3.1 Intra-Cerebrospinal Fluid and Interstitial Chemotherapy.- 25.2.3.2 Transient and Reversible Blood-Brain Barrier Modification.- 25.2.3.3 Carrier Systems and Liposomes.- 25.3 Immunotherapy.- 25.4 Biologic Therapies.- 26 Effects of Treatment on Brain Tumors and Normal Nervous Tissue.- 26.1 Effects of Radiotherapy and/or Chemotherapy on Human Brain Tumors.- 26.2 Effects of External Radiotherapy on the Human Brain.- 26.3 Effects of Brachytherapy on the Human Brain.- 26.4 Effects of External Radiotherapy on the Human Spinal Cord and/or Nerve Roots.- 26.5 Pathogenesis of Adverse Effects of Radiotherapy on the Normal Nervous Tissue.- 26.6 Effects of Chemotherapy on the Human Brain and Spinal Cord.- 26.7 Effects of Treatment on Normal Nervous Tissue in Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of Childhood.- 26.8 Second Malignancies.- References.