Budgeting: Politics and Power

Paperback | December 28, 2012

byCarol Lewis, W. Bartley Hildreth

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A skillful balance of application and theory, Budgeting: Politics and Power, Second Edition, is a comprehensive yet highly accessible introduction to the politics of budgeting. Unlike other texts on the subject - which typically focus only on budgeting issues at the federal level - this bookemphasizes budgeting at the state and local levels in order to translate budgetary politics in a way that will be more relevant to the vast majority of students. Drawing on a wide range of academic disciplines, the book also incorporates numerous pedagogical features, including case studies,in-class exercises, discussion and review questions; many charts, tables, photos, and cartoons; a glossary of budgeting terms; and an appendix of key federal budgeting points. A Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/lewis offers links to videos, chronologies, other online resources, and more.

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A skillful balance of application and theory, Budgeting: Politics and Power, Second Edition, is a comprehensive yet highly accessible introduction to the politics of budgeting. Unlike other texts on the subject - which typically focus only on budgeting issues at the federal level - this bookemphasizes budgeting at the state and local l...

Carol W. Lewis is Professor Emerita of Political Science at the University of Connecticut. W. Bartley Hildreth is Professor of Public Management and Policy in the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies at Georgia State University in Atlanta.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:368 pages, 9.25 × 6.12 × 0.68 inPublished:December 28, 2012Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199859213

ISBN - 13:9780199859214

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Extra Content

Table of Contents

Each chapter ends with Web Site Resources and Review Questions.PrefaceWhy a New Edition?A Different Take on the SubjectOrganization and Learning StyleAcknowledgmentsAbout the AuthorsIntroduction to Budgeting in a DemocracyDemocracyMarketsPoliticsTheoretically SpeakingWeb Site Resources1. Follow the MoneyWhat Is the Public Sector?Why Do We Need to Make Political Choices?Not a BrawlPolitical ProcessDo the Choices Matter?GuaranteeLimits to BudgetingHow Does Democracy Affect Budgeting?AccountabilityTransparencyResponsivenessStewardship and EfficiencyWhat Is a Good Budget?ThumbnailCase: A Lesson in Political Muscle2. We the People: Power and ParticipationDo We Vote Our Budget Choices?Voting Bundles, Not BudgetsVoting Political PartiesVoting Core Political BeliefsWhat Does Governing Mean?Can Citizens Speak to Political Leaders?Transparency and Meaningful ParticipationVoting Directly on Budget ChoicesAre Citizens Self-Interested Rational Actors?Emotional Language of Budgetary PoliticsHow Political Ideology Affects BudgetingIs Lobbying Legitimate in Budgetary Politics?How and Why We LobbyIssue NetworksDoes Public Opinion Influence Budgetary Politics?Do Leaders Listen?Interpreting Public OpinionThumbnailCase: Where the Rubber Hits the Road3. Fairness and Trust in Budgetary PoliticsWhat's Fair?Are Taxes Fair?The Public's PerspectiveNotions of Tax FairnessTax BurdenTaxes and Income InequalityFiscal Federalism and Tax FairnessIs Spending Fair?The Politics of RedistributionGenerational PoliticsSpending across the StatesPolitical and Budgetary IOUsAre Citizens Satisfied with Performance?Does Citizen Trust or Distrust Matter?ThumbnailCase: What's the Point?4. Proces4. Process MattersHow is the Budget "Game" Played?How Did We Get Here?What Is Executive Budgeting?- How Does Executive Budgeting Work?Executive Formulation and Submission- Bouncing Off the Base- Budget Requests- Significance of Stage OneLegislative Review and Appropriation- Review of the Executive Budget Request- Limits on Legislative Powers- Line-Item Appropriations and Veto Power- Budget BlackoutImplementation and Audit- Allotments and Rescissions- Supplemental Appropriations- After the Books Are ClosedSummary of the Executive Budget ProcessWhy Take a Political Perspective?How Does the Federal Entitlement Process Work?The Art of the Budget ProcessThumbnailCase: A Package Deal5. Putting the Puzzle TogetherWhat Rules Guide Putting the Budget Pieces Together?Fiscal Rules for the Federal GovernmentFiscal Rules for State and Local GovernmentsFiscal Rules Are NormsWhat Is a Balanced Budget?Revision of the Budget during the YearThe "Is" of a Balanced BudgetWhat Happens When There Is No Budget or the Budget Is Not in Balance?Financing the Federal Government's Annual Deficit by Issuing DebtState and Local Government DebtBudget CutbacksIs the Budget Sustainable Over Time?Rainy-Day BudgetingPublic Sector Employee BenefitsBudget SustainabilityThumbnailCase: When Persuasion is Broke6. Spending Public ResourcesHow Much Are We Spending?Measuring Spending- Internal Dynamics: Percent Change and Rate of Growth- External DevelopmentsA Slice of the PieCost Structure Makes a Difference- Workforce and Payroll- Employee Benefits and Unpaid BillsWhy Is Some Federal Spending Kept Secret?What Does Counterterrorism Cost?What Are We Getting for the Money?Why Do Budgets Grow?ThumbnailCase: Do-It-Yourself Government7. A Taxing Subject: Raising Public ResourcesWhy Do We Pay for Public Services?Willingness to PayRevenue Systems Serve Different FunctionsRevenue and Civic EngagementStrategies for Public SupportWho Makes Revenue Policy?Political Pressure on Technical ExpertsRevenue Power outside the BeltwayPolitical Pressure on Decision MakersWhat Types of Revenue Does the Public Sector Use?The Property TaxThe Income TaxThe Sales and Use TaxRevenue DiversityHow Do Taxes Work?The Sticky Problems of Tax AdministrationRules that Limit Tax Uses and Tax IncreasesNominal versus Effective Tax RateWhat Are the Five Principles of Taxation and How Are They Applied?Applying Tax Principle #1: How Does Tax Policy Affect Economic Growth?Applying Tax Principle #2: What is Efficient Taxation?Applying Tax Principle #3: How Can Tax Policy Be Economical?- Forecasting Revenue- Price of Government- Tax Elasticity- Revenue Yield over Time- Other ConcernsApplying Tax Principle 4: How Does Transparency Make Taxation Responsive?Applying Tax Principle #5: What Is a Fair Tax?- Benefits-Received Principle- Ability-to-Pay Principle- Tax Incidence- Taxes in the Global Economy- Can Governments Raise Revenue without Having Taxes?ThumbnailCase: A License to Prey?8. Politics and Capital BudgetingWhat Is Capital Budgeting and Why Is It Important?Infrastructure as Durable Goods and Capital AssetsDoing Public Mega-ProjectsShould Governments Plan and If So, How?Identifying Capital ProjectsCapital Programs and BudgetsProject Costs and BenefitsIf Not Pay Cash, Then Why and When Borrow Money?Debt Is Not Always BadBond Ratings and Credit QualityDebt RulesState and Local Government SecuritiesIs There Such a Thing as Free Money?State and Local Officials Look to the Federal GovernmentLocal Officials Look to the StatesThumbnailCase: Budget Busters!9. How to Read a Local BudgetA Budget's Four Main PartsBudget MessageBudget SummaryDetailed SchedulesSupporting DocumentationEight Focal Points1. Who/What?2. Fiscal Year?3. Operating or Capital Budget?4. Legal Status of the Document?5. Is the Budget Balanced?6. What Fund Applies?7. What Are the Budget Drivers?8. Who/What Gets the Spotlight?Proceed with Caution!Go Beyond the BudgetApplicationsQuestions to Ask When Reading a BudgetWould You Vote for This Budget?10. The Bottom LineWhy Does Budgeting Change and Yet So Much Stays the Same?Sources of ChangePutting on the SqueezeBudgetary and Political Time BombsHow Do Today's Budget Decisions Affect Tomorrow's Democracy?Long-Term Budget Commitments Undermine Democracy? AgreeLong-Term Budget Commitments Undermine Democracy? DisagreeHow Are We Doing?Transparency and Complexity- Financing Public Higher Education- Following the Money through a MazeAccountability, Stewardship, and the Artful Dodge- Budget Gimmicks- Dodging Tough ChoicesEfficiency, Effectiveness, and PerformanceResponsiveness and the Role and Size of GovernmentWhere Are We Headed?Reforming the Federal Appropriations ProcessEntitlement ReformClosure CommissionsReforming EarmarksOther ReformsWhat Can We Do about It?Trust and the Political DeficitParticipation and a Challenge to Take Two StepsThumbnailCase: The Gag RuleThe Big Picture: Integrating QuestionsAppendix A. The Federal Budget ProcessAppendix B. Glossary of Terms in Budgetary PoliticsReferencesIndex