By the People: Debating American Government, Brief

Paperback | December 29, 2014

byJames A. Morone, Rogan Kersh

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In a storytelling approach that weaves contemporary examples together with historical context, By the People explores the themes and ideas that drive the great debates in American government and politics. It introduces students to big questions like: Who governs? How does our system ofgovernment work? What does government do? and Who are we? By challenging students with these questions, the text gets them to think about, engage with, and debate the merits of U.S. government and politics. Ideal for professors who prefer a shorter text, By the People, Brief Second Edition, condenses the content of the comprehensive edition while also preserving its essential insights, organization, and approach.

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In a storytelling approach that weaves contemporary examples together with historical context, By the People explores the themes and ideas that drive the great debates in American government and politics. It introduces students to big questions like: Who governs? How does our system ofgovernment work? What does government do? and Who a...

James A. Morone (B.A., Middlebury College, and M.A. and PhD, University of Chicago) is Professor of Political Science at Brown University and five-time winner of the Hazeltine Citation for outstanding teacher of the year. A renowned scholar of American Political Science, Dr. Morone, an award-winning author, has published eight books in...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:624 pages, 9.88 × 6.3 × 1.18 inPublished:December 29, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0190216735

ISBN - 13:9780190216733

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Table of Contents

About the AuthorsPreface1. Ideas That Shape American PoliticsThe Spirit of American PoliticsWho Governs?How Does American Politics Work?--Ideas--Institutions--Interests--IndividualsWhat Does Government Do?Who Are We?A Nation of IdeasLiberty"The Land of the Free"The Two Sides of LibertyThe Idea of Freedom is Always ChangingWhat Do You Think? Negative versus Positive LibertySelf-RuleOne Side of Self-Rule: DemocracyAnother Side of Self-Rule: A RepublicA Mixed SystemLimited GovernmentThe Origins of Limited GovernmentAnd Yet . . . The United States Has a Big GovernmentLimits on Government ActionWhen Ideas Clash: Self-Rule and Limited GovernmentWhat Do You Think? Self-Rule Versus Limited GovernmentIndividualismCommunity Versus IndividualismThe Roots of American Individualism: Opportunity and Discord--Golden Opportunity--Social ConflictWho We Are: Individualism and Solidarity?What Do You Think? Individualism versus SolidarityThe American DreamSpreading the DreamChallenging the Dream--Is the System Tilted Toward the Wealthy?--Does the American Dream Promote the Wrong Values?EqualityThree Kinds of EqualityHow Much Economic Inequality is Too Much?Opportunity or Outcome?ReligionStill a Religious CountrySo Many ReligionsThe Politics of ReligionHow Do Ideas Affect Politics?Ideas in American CultureThe Ideas in Political InstitutionsCulture or Institutions?Conclusion: Culture and Institutions, Together2. The ConstitutionThe Colonial Roots of the ConstitutionWhy the Colonists RevoltedThe Colonial Complaint: RepresentationThe Conflict Begins with Blood on the FrontierThe Stamp Tax and the First Hints of IndependenceThe Townshend Acts Worsen the ConflictThe Boston Tea PartyRevolution!A Long LegacyThe Declaration of IndependenceThe Principle: "We Hold These Truths . . ."GrievancesThe First American Government: The Articles of ConfederationThe National GovernmentSome Success . . .. . . And Some ProblemsWhat Do You Think? Your Advice is NeededThe First Step: Annapolis ConventionSecrecyThe Constitutional Convention1. How Much Power to the People?2. National Government versus State Government3. Big States versus Small States--The Virginia Plan--The New Jersey Plan--The Connecticut Compromise4. The President--Committee Or Individual?--The Electoral College5. Separation of Powers6. "A Principle of Which We Were Ashamed"--The Three-Fifths Compromise--The Slave Trade--Fugitive Slaves--"The National Calamity"An Overview of the ConstitutionPreambleArticle 1: CongressWhat Do You Think? Have We Achieved the Constitution's Goals Today?Article 2: The PresidentArticle 3: The CourtsArticle 4: Relations between the StatesArticle 5: AmendmentsArticle 6: The Law of the LandArticle 7: RatificationThe Missing ArticlesRatificationThe Anti-FederalistsThe FederalistsTwo Strong ArgumentsA Very Close VoteChanging the ConstitutionThe Bill of RightsThe Seventeen AmendmentsThe Constitution TodayConclusion: Does the Constitution Still Work?What Do You Think? How Strictly Should We Interpret the Constitution?3. Federalism and NationalismForging FederalismWho Holds Government Authority?Advantages of State Level PolicyThe Advantages of National PolicyWhat Do You Think? Preserving Local Values or Continuing a Terrible Injustice?How Federalism WorksThe Constitution Sets the Ground Rules--The Constitution Empowers National Authority--The Constitution Protects State Authority--The Constitution Authorizes Shared PowerDual Federalism (1789-1933)Cooperative Federalism (1933-1981)New FederalismBattles over Federalism Today--Drowned in the Bathtub?--Unfunded MandatesFederalism and the PartiesWhat Do You Think? Intergovernmental Lobbying, American StyleFederalism in the CourtsNationalism, American StyleThe Imagined CommunityThe Rise of American Nationalism--Size--Authority--IndependenceConclusion: Who Are We?4. Civil LibertiesThe Rise of Civil LibertiesCivil Rights and Civil LibertiesThe Slow Rise of RightsPrivacyPenumbras and EmanationsWhat Do You Think? Is There a Right to Privacy?Roe v. WadeSexuality between Consenting AdultsFreedom of ReligionThe Establishment ClauseFree Exercise of ReligionWhat Do You Think? May the Christian Youth Club Meet in School?Freedom of SpeechA Preferred PositionWhat Do You Think? David's LawPolitical SpeechSymbolic SpeechLimits to Free Speech: Fighting WordsLimited Protections: Student SpeechFreedom of the PressPrior RestraintObscenityLibelThe Right to Bear ArmsA Relic of the Revolution?The Palladium of All Liberties?The Rights of the AccusedAmericans Behind BarsWhat Do You Think? End the Death Penalty?The Fourth Amendment: Search and SeizureThe Fifth Amendment: Rights at TrialsThe Sixth Amendment: The Right to CounselThe Eighth Amendment: The Death PenaltyFighting Terrorism and Protecting LibertySurveillanceConclusion: The Dilemma of Civil Liberties5. The Struggle for Civil RightsWinning Rights: The Political ProcessSeven Steps to Political EqualityHow the Courts Review Cases--Suspect categories--Quasi-suspect categories--Non-suspect categoriesRace and Civil Rights: Revolt against SlaveryThe Clash over Slavery--Abolition--Economics-- PoliticsDred Scott v. SandfordThe Second American Founding: A New Birth of Freedom?Freedom FailsThe Fight for Racial EqualityTwo Kinds of DiscriminationThe Civil Rights Campaign BeginsThe CourtsThe Civil Rights MovementWhat Do You Think? Would You have Protested?Congress and the Civil Rights ActThe Achievements of the Civil Rights EraAffirmative Action in the WorkplaceAffirmative Action in EducationWhat Do You Think? Higher Education and Affirmative ActionVoting Rights TodayWhere are We Now?GenderSuffrageThe Civil Rights Act of 1964The CourtsProgress--But How Much?Reproductive PoliticsHispanicsChallenging DiscriminationThe Politics of ImmigrationThe Controversy over LanguagePolitical MobilizationAsian AmericansAsian StereotypesNative AmericansThe Lost Way of LifeIndians and the Federal GovernmentSocial Problems and PoliticsGroups without Special ProtectionPeople with DisabilitiesSexual OrientationConclusion: By the People6. Public Opinion and Political ParticipationSources of Public OpinionSelf-Interest: Voting Our PocketbooksDemography - Race, Gender, Age, and MorePartyElite InfluenceWars and Other Focusing EventsMeasuring Public OpinionEarly Polling BloopersPolling 101Do Opinion Surveys Influence Us?Public Opinion in a DemocracyIgnorant MassesThe Rational PublicWhat Do You Think? Can We Trust the Public?Getting Involved: Electoral, Voluntary, and Political VoiceElectoral ActivitiesWhat Do You Think? Should Everyone Participate in Politics?Civic VoluntarismPolitical VoiceWhat Inspires Political Participation?Spurs to Individual Participation--Background: Age, Wealth, and Education--Friends, Family, and Social Capital--Political Mobilization--Government BeneficiariesContextWhat Discourages Political Participation?AlienationInstitutional BarriersComplacencyShifting Mobilization PatternsThe Internet, Social Media, and Gen Y ParticipationScenario 1: Rebooting DemocracyScenario 2: More Hype and Danger than Democratic RenaissanceConclusion: Government by the People7. The MediaAmerican Media Today: Traditional Formats are DecliningWhere People Go for NewsNewspaper Decline--The First Mass Media--Should We Worry?Radio Holds SteadyTelevision: From News to Infotainment--The Rise of Cable--InfotainmentThe Rise of the New MediaIs the Media Biased?Reporters Are DemocratsProfits Drive the News IndustryDrama Delivers AudiencesSex and ScandalThe Skeptical MediaHow Governments Shape the MediaThe First Amendment Protects Print Media from RegulationRegulating BroadcastersHow the Media Shapes PoliticsNews Stories Reinforce Existing BeliefsThe Political AgendaPriming the PublicFraming the IssueThe Media's Electoral ConnectionThe Campaign as DramaCandidate ProfilesConclusion: At the Crossroads of the Media WorldWhat Do You Think? Does the Media Enhance Democracy?8. Campaigns and ElectionsHow Democratic are American Elections?Frequent and Fixed Elections520,000 Elected OfficialsWhat Do You Think? Too Many Elected Positions?Financing Campaigns: The New Inequality?--Too Much Money?--Election Spending in Context--Major Donors: Easier to GivePresidential Campaigns and ElectionsWho Runs for President?Presidential Campaigns Have Three PhasesWinning the NominationWhat Do You Think? Why Iowa and New Hampshire?Organizing the ConventionThe General ElectionWinning Presidential Elections--Economic Outlook--Demographics--War and Foreign Policy--Domestic Issues--The Campaign OrganizationCongressional Campaigns and ElectionsCandidates: Who Runs for Congress?The Power of IncumbencyCongressional Election ResultsRedrawing the Lines: The Art of the GerrymanderNonpartisan Districting and Minority RepresentationHow to Run for CongressKey 1: MoneyKey 2: OrganizationKey 3: StrategyKey 4: MessageConclusion: Reforming American Elections9. Interest Groups and Political PartiesInterest Groups and LobbyingWhat Private Interest Groups DoWhat Public Interest Groups DoWhat Interest Groups Do for Democracy?Lobbying the Federal Branches of GovernmentRise of the Issue NetworkIntergovernmental and Reverse LobbyingLobbying the Courts--Lobbying on Judicial Confirmations--Filing Amicus Curiae ("Friend of Court") Briefs--Sponsoring LitigationInterest Groups and PowerLobbyist SpendingPolitical Parties and US GovernmentWhat the Parties Do--Parties Champion Ideas--Parties Select Candidates--Parties Mobilize the Voters--Parties Organize Governing Activity after the Election--Parties Help Integrate New Groups into the Political ProcessTwo-Party AmericaThird Parties in American PoliticsAmerica's Party Systems: Origins and Change--Beginnings: First Party System (1789-1828)--Rise: Second Party System (ca. 1828-1860)--War and Reconstruction: Third Party System (1860-1896)--Business and Reform: Fourth Party System (1896-1932)--Depression and New Deal: Fifth Party System (1933-1968)--The Sixth Party System: The Parties at Equal Strength (1972-Present)Party Identification . . . and IdeasBuilding Party IdentificationThe Power of Party Attachment--Voting/ParticipationWhat Do You Think? Personality and Party--Filtering--IdeologyOrganizing the Parties--The Party Bureaucracy--Party in Government--Party in the Electorate--The Big TentParty Competition . . . and PartisanshipParties Rise AgainCompetition and Partisanship IntensifiesWhat Do You Think? PartisanshipConclusion: A Political System Ripe for Reform?1. Regulating LobbyistsWhat Do You Think? Assessing the Influence of Lobbyists2. Reduce Partisanship in Government10. CongressIntroducing CongressTwo Houses, Different StylesWhat Do You Think? Senate FilibustersThe House and Senate Have Some Unique RolesCongressional RepresentationTrustees and Delegates--Do the Right Thing--Do What the People WantWhat Do You Think? Two Views of RepresentationElections: Getting to Congress--and Staying ThereCongressional ElectionsHome Styles: Back in the DistrictCongress at WorkThe City on the HillMinnows and Whales: Congressional LeadershipHouse LeadershipSenate LeadershipCommittees: Workhorses of CongressThe Enduring Power of CommitteesLeadership and AssignmentsLegislative Policy MakingDrafting a BillSubmitting the BillCommittee Action--1. Committees Hold Hearings on Policy Topics--2. Committees Prepare Legislation for Consideration on the House or Senate Floor--3. Committees also Kill Legislation, Deleting Items that are Judged Less Important or Not Particularly Urgent--or Not Politically Viable--4. Committees' Work Extends Beyond Legislation, to OversightFloor Actiona Conference CommitteeWhy is Congress So Unpopular?d Powers, Once MorePartisan Polarization in CongressDivided GovernmentWhat Do You Think? Is a Partisan Congress a Good Thing?Conclusion: Congress and the Challenge of Governing11. The PresidencyDefining the PresidencyThe President's PowersIs the President Too Powerful?An Imperial Presidency?A Weak Office?What Presidents DoCommander in ChiefTop DiplomatThe First Legislator--Recommending Measures--State of the Union--Presidential "Batting Average"--Veto--Signing StatementsChief BureaucratEconomist in ChiefParty LeaderStateThe Bully Pulpit: Introducing IdeasThe Impossible JobPresidential Leadership: Success and Failure in the Oval OfficeManaging the PublicApproval RatingsWhat Do You Think? Ranking the PresidentPresidential GreatnessThe President's Team: A Tour of the White HouseThe Political Solar System: Presidential AppointmentsThe Vice PresidentThe CabinetThe Executive Office of the President--The Office of Management and Budget (OMB)--The Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)--The National Security Council (NSC)--The List of Offices in Sum--The Heart of Power: The White House Office (WHO)What Do You Think: Too Many Presidential Aides?--The First SpouseConclusion: The Most Powerful Office on Earth?12. BureaucracyHow the Bureaucracy GrewBefore the Bureaucracy--War--Morality--Economics--Geography--RaceThe Bureaucratic Model--Hierarchy--Division of Labor--Fixed Routines--Equal Rules for All--Technical QualificationsBureaucratic PathologiesThe Democratic DilemmaWhat Bureaucracies DoRule MakingImplementationHow the Bureaucracy is OrganizedThe Cabinet Departments--The Rotating BureaucracyOther Agencies--Executive Agencies--Independent Regulatory Commissions--An Army of their Own--Private ContractorsWho Controls the Federal Bureaucracy?The PeopleThe PresidentCongressInterest GroupsBureaucratic AutonomyDemocracy RevisitedReforming the BureaucracyOpen up the SystemReinventing GovernmentWhat Do You Think? Should We Privatize More Government Functions?PrivatizationConclusion: The Real Solution Lies with You13. The Judicial BranchWho are We? A Nation of Laws . . . and LawyersEmbracing the Law--and LawsuitsDeclining TrustCourts in American CultureOrganizing the Judicial BranchDivided We RuleState and Local CourtsJudicial SelectionWhat Do You Think? How Should States Select their Judges?Federal CourtsSpecialized CourtsDiversity in the Federal JudiciaryWhat Do You Think? Identity on the BenchThe Court's RoleJudicial ReviewActivism versus RestraintThe Judicial ProcessToo Much Power?. . . Or Still the "Least Dangerous" Branch?The Supreme Court and How it OperatesHearing CasesSelecting Cases: Formal RequirementsSelecting Cases: Informal FactorsConference Sessions and Written DecisionsSupreme Court ClerksConfirmation BattlesJudicial Decision Making and ReformThe Role of LawIdeology and PartisanshipCollegiality and Peer PressureInstitutional ConcernsNineteen Cases You Should Know1. Marbury v. Madison (1803)2. Mccullough v. Maryland (1819)3. Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)4. Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)5. Santa Clara Co. v. Southern Pacific Railroad (1886)6. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)7. Lochner v. New York (1905)8. Muller v. Oregon (1908)9. Schenck v. United States (1919)10. National Labor Relations Board v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation (1937)11. Korematsu v. US (1944)12. Brown v. Board of Education (1954)13. Mapp v. Ohio (1961)14. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)15. Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)16. Roe v. Wade (1973)17. US v. Nixon (1974)18. Bush v. Gore (2000)19. National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius (2012)What Do You Think? Name another Landmark CaseThe Nineteen Cases--and the Power of the CourtConclusion: Democracy and the Courts14. Domestic and Foreign PolicyPublic Policymaking in Five (Not-So-Easy) Stages1. Agenda Setting2. Framing3. Policy Formation--Analyzing Policy, Ex Ante--From Cost-Benefit Analysis to Politics4. Policy Implementation--Top-Down Delivery--Bottom-Up Delivery5. Policy Evaluation and Feedback--Policy FeedbackUS Social PolicyOld-Age Insurance: Social SecurityUnemployment BenefitsHealth and Disability: Medicare/MedicaidWhat Do You Think: Should We Reform Social Security and Medicare?Economic Policymaking, I: Fiscal and Monetary PolicyFiscal PolicyMonetary PolicyEconomic Policymaking, II: The Federal Budget ProcessAmerican Foreign Policy GoalsAmerican Foreign Policy Goal No. 1: Security--The Military--Soft Power--Foreign Aid and National SecurityWhat Do You Think? Downsizing the MilitaryAmerican Foreign Policy Goal No. 2: ProsperityFree TradeEnergyEconomic WeaponsForeign Policy Goal No. 3: Spreading American IdealsWho Makes Foreign Policy?CongressThe PresidentThe State DepartmentThe Department of DefenseIntelligenceThe National Security CouncilSuccess or Fragmentation?Grand Strategies over TimeWorld War I and Isolationism (1918-1939)World War II, the Cold War, and Multilateralism (1942-1989)The New World Order (1989-2003)The War On Terror (Began 2001)--War in Afghanistan--War in Iraq--Terrorist Threats TodayWhat Do You Think? Terrorists and the Rule of LawConclusion: Policy MattersAppendix I: The Declaration of IndependenceAppendix II: The Constitution of the United States of AmericaAppendix III: The Federalist Papers 1, 10, and 51Appendix IV: Presidential Elections, Congressional Control, 1789-2012GlossaryNotesCreditsIndex

Editorial Reviews

"I like the 'What Do You Think' features; I think that they could be used to start good conversations. In a large class they might be items that professors assign for recitation sections (or short essays) and in smaller classes they offer great ideas to debate further in class." --Zachary Baumann, The Pennsylvania State University