Caffeine: Perspectives from Recent Research by P. B. DewsCaffeine: Perspectives from Recent Research by P. B. Dews

Caffeine: Perspectives from Recent Research

byP. B. Dews

Paperback | December 28, 2011

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Before the late 1970s, interest in caffeine among both the general public and the scientific community was at a relatively low level for many years, even though it was recognized that caffeine was an al­ most universal component of the diet. The National Coffee Associa­ tion was supporting a continuing program of research, some re­ search was being conducted by a few of the largest companies selling coffee, and an occasional university researcher became inter­ ested in caffeine and conducted experiments, often on effects of caf­ feine in very high concentration in vitro on skeletal muscle fibres or on dividing cells. Since 1978, however, there has been a mighty up­ surge in both public and scientific interest in caffeine. It is interest­ ing to note that this was prompted not by discovery of hitherto un­ known effects or hazards of caffeine, but by the actions of a regulatory agency, the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) of the U. S. Public Health Service. The U. S. Congress passed new laws on foods and drugs in 1958. One of the provisions was for testing of food additives to assess risk to health. As it was clearly impracticable to require immediate test­ ing of all additives already in use, a list was drawn up of some hun­ dreds of additives that were generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
Title:Caffeine: Perspectives from Recent ResearchFormat:PaperbackDimensions:260 pages, 24.4 × 17 × 0.01 inPublished:December 28, 2011Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3642698255

ISBN - 13:9783642698255

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Table of Contents

Section I Metabolism and Kinetics.- I Products of Metabolism of Caffeine.- 1 Discovery and Chemical Structure of Methylxanthines.- 2 Formation of Uric Acid Metabolites.- 3 Introduction of Chromatographic Techniques.- 4 The Metabolic Studies by H.H. Cornish.- 5 Use of Labeled Methylxanthines.- 6 Metabolism of Theophylline in the Premature Infant.- 7 Metabolism of Labeled Theobromine and Identification of Uracil Derivatives.- 8 Use of Methyl-Labeled Caffeine in Breath Tests.- 9 Perinatal Caffeine and Theophylline Metabolism.- 10 Quantitative Metabolic Pathways of Dimethylxanthines.- 11 Identification of an Acetylated Uracil Metabolite in Man.- References.- II Measurement of Caffeine and Its Metabolites in Biological Fluids.- 1 Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry.- 2 Liquid Chromatography.- 3 Thin-Layer Chromatography.- 4 Immunoassays.- 5 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry.- 6 Carbon Dioxide Breath Test.- 7 Conclusions.- References.- III Interspecies Comparison of Caffeine Disposition.- 1 Absorption.- 2 Plasma Protein Binding.- 3 Distribution.- 4 Clearance.- 4.1 Renal Clearance.- 4.2 Metabolic Clearance.- 4.3 Urinary Metabolism.- 5 Kinetics of Primary Metabolites of Caffeine.- 6 Nonlinear Kinetics.- 7 Chronic Treatment in the Rat.- References.- Section II Intake.- IV Human Consumption of Caffeine.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Sources and Levels.- 2.1 Coffee.- 2.2 Tea.- 2.3 Cocoa and Chocolate Products.- 2.4 Soft Drinks.- 2.5 Drug Products.- 2.6 Standard Caffeine Content Values.- 3 Consumption Data Sources.- 4 Consumption Estimates.- 4.1 Market Research Corporation of America Survey.- 4.2 Market Facts Survey.- 4.3 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey.- 4.4 1982 Coffee Drinking Study.- 4.5 Standard Consumption Estimates.- 4.6 Consumption by Pregnant Women.- 5 Time Distribution of Caffeine Intake.- 6 Summary.- References.- Section III Physiological and Behavioral Effects.- V The Cardiovascular Effects of Caffeine.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Myocardial Contractility.- 3 Heart Rate.- 4 Blood Pressure.- 5 Clinical Pharmacology.- References.- VI Behavioral Effects of Caffeine.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Man.- 2.1 Performance in Laboratory Tests.- 2.2 Individual Variation.- 2.3 Effects in Children.- 2.4 Adverse Effects in Man.- 2.5 Comments on Studies of Behavioral Effects in Human Subjects.- 3 Experimental Animals.- 3.1 Mice.- 3.2 Rats.- 3.3 Other Species.- 4 Conclusions.- References.- Section IV Mechanisms of Effects.- VII Effects of Caffeine on Monoamine Neurotransmitters in the Central and Peripheral Nervous System.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Effects on Brain Monoamines.- 2.1 Serotonin.- 2.2 Catecholamines.- 3 Effects on Catecholamines in the Peripheral Nervous.- System.- References.- VIII Neuroendocrine Effects of Caffeine in Rat and Man.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Studies on Experimental Animals.- 3 Studies in Man.- 4 Conclusions.- References.- IX Adenosine as a Mediator of the Behavioral Effects of Xanthines.- 1 Physiologic Effects of Adenosine.- 2 Adenosine Receptor Localization.- 3 Adenosine Receptor Binding Properties.- 4 Behavioral Effects of Xanthines and Adenosine.- Derivatives.- References.- X Caffeine and the Cardiovascular Effects of Physiological Levels of Adenosine.- 1 Introduction: Caffeine as an Antagonist of Endogenous Adenosine.- 2 Effects of Circulating Adenosine.- 3 Implications of the Interaction of Caffeine with Endogenous Adenosine.- References.- Section V Direct Assessments of Effects on Health Editor of Section V: W. R. Grice.- XI Influence of Ingested Caffeine on Animal Reproduction.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Rats.- 2.1 Details of Experimental Reports.- 2.1.1 Caffeine in Drinking Solution.- 2.1.2 Caffeine in Feed.- 2.2 Summary and Conclusions.- 3 Mice.- 3.1 Details of Experimental Reports.- 3.1.1 Caffeine in Drinking Water.- 3.1.2 Caffeine Administered by Gavage.- 3.1.3 Caffeine Administered by Injection.- 3.2 Summary and Conclusions.- 4 Domestic Chickens.- 5 General Observations.- References.- XII The Teratogenic Potential of Caffeine in Laboratory Animals.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Results of Previous Animal Studies.- 2.1 Concordant Results.- 2.2 Discordant Results.- 3 Previous Reviews of Animal Studies.- 3.1 Federation of American Societies of Biology Report.- 3.2 Citizens' Petition to the Food and Drug Administration..- 3.3 Food and Drug Administration Review of Reproduction and Teratology Studies on Caffeine.- 3.4 National Soft Drink Association's Critique of the Collins Gavage Study.- 3.4.1 Procedural Criticisms.- 3.4.2 Maternal Toxicity.- 3.4.3 Skeletal Variants.- 3.4.4 No-Effect Levels.- 4 Remaining Unresolved Issues.- 4.1 Mechanism(s) of Teratogenic Action in Rodents.- 4.2 Skeletal Variants and Their Biological Significance.- 4.3 Interaction of Caffeine with Known Teratogens.- 4.4 Does Gavage in Animals Induce Complications Secondary to Emotional Stress?.- 5 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- XIII Epidemiologic Studies of Birth Defects.- 1 What Is Epidemiology?.- 2 Why the Need for Epidemiology?.- 3 Limitations of Epidemiology.- 3.1 Associations, Not Causes.- 3.2 Quality of Data.- 3.2.1 Measures of Exposure.- 3.2.2 Outcome Data.- 3.2.3 Covariates.- 3.3 Biases.- 4 The Past.- 5 Recent Publications.- 5.1 Harvard Study.- 5.2 Boston University Study.- 5.3 Loma Linda Study.- 5.4 Yale Study.- 5.5 Overview.- 6 The Future.- References.- XIV The Carcinogenic Potential of Caffeine.- 1 Animal Studies.- 1.1 Published.- 1.2 Unpublished.- 1.3 Cited at Scientific Meetings and in Various Stages of Completion.- 1.4 General Conclusions.- 2 Chemical and Metabolic Studies.- 2.1 Metabolic Evidence.- 2.1.1 Direct Alkylation of DNA or Incorporation into DNA.- 2.1.2 Does Caffeine Undergo Metabolic Activation?.- 2.1.3 Does Caffeine Undergo Covalent Binding?.- 2.2 Structure-Activity Relationships.- 2.3 Associated Biological Activities of Caffeine.- 2.4 Nitrosation Reactions.- 2.5 Summary and Conclusions.- 3 Epidemiological Evidence.- 3.1 Cancer of the Urinary Bladder.- 3.2 Cancer of the Pancreas.- 3.3 Cancer of the Ovary.- 3.4 Conclusions.- 4 Summary of Evidence on Mutagenicity.- References.- XV The Mutagenic Potential of Caffeine.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Exposure.- 3 Results of Mutagenicity Tests.- 3.1 Gene Mutations.- 3.2 Chromosomal Aberrations.- 3.3 Caffeine in Combination with Other Agents.- 3.3.1 Micro-organisms.- 3.3.2 Drosophila melanogaster.- 3.3.3 Plants.- 3.3.4 Mammalian Cells in Culture.- 3.4 Summary and Risk Evaluation for Genetic Effects.- 4 Related Effects of Caffeine.- 4.1 Crossing-over.- 4.2 DNA Repair.- 4.3 Deoxyribonucleotide Pools.- 5 Conclusions.- References.- XVI Mechanism of Potentiation by Caffeine of Genotoxic Damage Induced by Physical and Chemical Agents: Possible Relevance to Carcinogenesis.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Enhancement by Caffeine of Toxicity and Chromosomal Damage Induced by Chemical Agents.- 3 Effects of Caffeine Alone on Normal DNA Replication..- 4 Effects of Genotoxic Agents on DNA Synthesis.- 5 Effects of Post-treatment with Caffeine on DNA Synthesis in Mammalian Cells Treated with Genotoxic Agents.- 6 Caffeine-Induced DNA Template Breakage in Treated Cells: Double-Strand Break Formation.- 7 Caffeine-Induced Premature Mitosis.- 8 Modifying Effects of Caffeine on Tumour Induction by Chemical and Physical Agents: Possible Role of DNA Repair.- 9 Conclusions.- References.