Canadian Policing by Colin S. CampbellCanadian Policing by Colin S. Campbell

Canadian Policing

byColin S. Campbell, John Cater, Nahanni Pollard

Paperback | September 29, 2016

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Canadian Policing provides a practical and comprehensive overview of the history, functions, processes, issues, and challenges of policing in Canada today. Engaging, real-world examples and balanced coverage of controversial topics throughout encourage critical thinking and help students applytheir learning to their future careers.
Colin Campbell has taught in the Department of Criminology at Douglas College since 1997. He completed his PhD in criminology at Simon Fraser University and his MA in sociology at the University of Calgary. He also has BA and BEd degrees from the University of Calgary. He has taught criminology and policing-related courses for over 30 ...
Title:Canadian PolicingFormat:PaperbackDimensions:352 pages, 9 × 7 × 0.5 inPublished:September 29, 2016Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199018782

ISBN - 13:9780199018789

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Table of Contents

Note: Chapters include:- Introduction- Learning objectives- Conclusion- Critical thinking questionsPart I: Background and Current Framework of Policing in Canada1. The Context of Policing in Canada in the Twenty-First-CenturyThe Concept of Policing- Public Policing- Police or Policing?PolicingForces Shaping Early Twenty-First-Century PolicingThe Origin of Policing in Canada- The British Model of PolicingThe Canadian ExperienceLevels of Policing in Canada- Federal Policing- Provincial Policing- Contract Policing- Municipal Policing- Regional Policing (Including Transit Police)- First NationsPrivate Policing2. The Canadian Criminal Justice System - An OverviewPolice in a Democratic Society- Consensus and Critical Perspectives- Police and GovernmentMaking Criminal Law: An Exclusive Federal ResponsibilityThe Charter of Rights and FreedomsThe Criminal Code of CanadaSummary Conviction, Indictable, and Hybrid Offences- Summary Conviction Offences- Indictable Offences- Hybrid (or Dual) OffencesThe Structure of the Canadian Court SystemCase Progression: From Offence to Incarceration- Adversarial System- Offence- Judicial Interim Release- Role of Persecution- Role of Defence CounselCriminal Trial Process- Criminal Trial Phases- Appeals- Incarceration- ParolePart II: Becoming a Police Officer3. Recruitment and TrainingRecruitmentThe Five CsThe NumbersRecruiting Basics- Aptitude Test- Physical Abilities- Background Checks- References/ Work/ Character- Formal Interview- Polygraph- Psychology- Medical Assessment and Clearance- Specific Criteria for Potential RecruitsWomen in PolicingThe Recruitment of Experienced Police OfficersTraining Facilities in CanadaAt the AcademyFormal and Informal SocializationField TrainingGenerational Differences- Responding to Losing Experienced Police Officers to Retirement- In-Service Training/ Continuous Learning- Advanced Investigative TrainingSpecialized Training- Online Training4. Ethics and DiscretionDiscretion in the FieldSituational VariablesJurisdictional VariablesThe Application of the Law is Far From Black and WhiteLimits to Police Discretion- Domestic Violence- Youth Criminal Justice ActUse of Force and DiscretionDiscretion and the CharterEthics TrainingUnethical Behaviour by Police OfficersOff-Duty Conduct5. Accountability and OversightOversight and AccountabilityPublic PerceptionThe Influence of the United StatesIn CanadaFormal StructuresThe Individual, or the Structure of the Police Force?Three Levels of AccountabilityIs A Police Officer Ever Off Duty?Accountability Mechanisms within Police Agencies- Professional Standards Units (Most Often Internal)- Anti-Corruption UnitsPolice Oversight ModelsShould the Police Investigate Themselves?Public InquiriesAccountability on the StreetTracking and Documenting the Activities of the PoliceAccountability to the Court Process- Police Officer NotesDisclosure of Police Disciplinary RecordsThe Globe and Mail Test6. Performance MeasurementIntroduction- Inputs, Outputs, and OutcomesClassic Quantitative Performance Measures- Crime Rate- Use and Benefits- External Impacts- Reported Crime- Crime Severity Index- Arrest Rates- Use and Benefits- Discretion- Political Influence- Proactive Police Work- Response Times- Use and Benefits- Workload Benefits- Clearance Rates- Other Quantitative MeasuresAlternate and Qualitative Measures of Performance- Community SurveysUnintended Consequences of Performance MetricsNewer Innovations- CompStat- Balanced Scorecard ApproachesWhy Performance Measures FailPart III: On the Job as an Officer7. PatrolUniformed Patrol OfficersPatrol Methods- Patrol Car- One- or Two-Officer Cars- Foot/Bike Patrol- Other Modes of PatrolPatrol AllocationPatrol Officer Relationships with Plainclothes DetectivesPolice Officer AuthoritiesCriminal Code Authorities for the Police- Arrest and Detention- Search and Seizure- Searching Without a Warrant- Search of a Person- Search without a Warrant - Exigent Circumstances- Search with a Warrant- Swearing an Information- Provincial Offences- Use of Force- Use of Force FrameworkPriority CallsPolice Pursuits8. InvestigationsAttention to DetailStreet ChecksFrom the Patrol Officer to Specialized UnitsLinkage BlindnessCommunication among AgenciesCrime SceneCivilian SpecialistsMajor Case Management- DNA Evidence in Context- Holdback Evidence- Neighbourhood Canvassing- Video Canvassing- Interviews- Confidential InformersJudicial Authorizations- Wiretap- Undercover Operations- Police Agents- EPandora- Behavioural Sciences- Civilian Analysts- Mining Social Media to Support or Complement other Investigative StrategiesPolice AgentsThe Report to Crown CounselDisruption and MitigationWhat is a Successful Police Investigations?Police Officers and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder9. Operational SupportCovert Teams: Surveillance- Visual Surveillance- Audio SurveillanceSpecial Equipment and Tactics Teams- Emergency Response- Flight Support- Marine UnitsForensic Services- Human Forensics - Biology, Chemistry, and Toxicology- Firearms, Bullets, and Toolmarks- Training- Digital ForensicsAdministrative Support- Property Management- Records Management- Emergency Management Services: Communications/DispatchPart IV: Current Trends and Challenges10. Economics of PolicingThe Cost of Policing in CanadaPolice Structure in CanadaPolice Funding in CanadaThe Evolution of the Structure and Delivery of Canadian Police ServicesGrowing Municipal ResentmentThe Cost Drivers- Police Officer Strength and Compensation- The Changing Nature of Crime- Increase in Calls for Service- Criminal Justice System Demands on Police Resources- Court Waiting Time- Changing Legal Environment- Challenges of Policing Small, Rural and Northern Communities- Isolation- Levels of Police Service DeliveryMitigation Strategies- Redefinition of Core Responsibilities of the Police- Integrated Policing Resources- Operational Reviews- Eliminating Needless Duplication- Efficiencies in Police Training- Shared Research Needed11. Policing and Crime PreventionTheoretical Base- Rational Choice, Routine Activities, and Pattern TheoryGuiding Paradigms in Policing- Professional Model or Traditional Policing- Community Based PolicingPolice-Centered Practices and Programs- Problem Oriented Policing- Intelligence Led Policing- Hot Spots Policing- CompStat- Broken Windows12. The Role of the Crime AnalystHistory and TheoryTypes of Crime Analysts- Operations Support vs. Intelligence/Major Crime Analysis- Operations Support- Investigative Analyst- Tactical Analysts and CompStat- Strategic Crime Analysts- Administrative Crime AnalystsStandard Analysis- Counts, Rates, and Percentage ChangeSpecialized Analysis- Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Crime Mapping- Social Network Analysis- Geographic ProfilingThe Analyst within the OrganizationThe Analyst as the Bridge between OrganizationsWhen Crime Analysis Fails in an Organization13. Police and Media RelationsCompeting PerspectivesThe Media from the Police PerspectiveA New Relationship between Police and MediaPolice Media Liaison UnitsSocial Media and the PoliceMedia Influence on Public Perceptions of CrimeLogics of Police-Media Engagement14. National Security Policing in a Post-9/11 (Risk) SocietyThe Origins of Canadian Security Services- The Fenians- South-Asian Radicals- The Doukhobors- Labour Activism and the Winnipeg General Strike (1919)- National Security through World War II and the Cold War- Sons of Freedom- The Gouzenko Spy Affair- The Mackenzie Commission of Inquiry (1969)- The FLQ and the October 1970 Crisis- The Keable and McDonald Public Inquiries- Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS)- Sikh Extremists and the 1985 Bombing of Air India Flight 182- The Air India FailurePolicing post 9/11- The Maher Arar AffairThe New Urgency- High Risk Travelers (HRT)- Terrorist RisksRisk Society- The Emergence of Risk Society- What Is Risk Society?- Actuarial Criminology?- Policing in a Risk Society15. Policing and a Diverse SocietyCanadian Diversity- Diversity and Poverty- Multiculturalism and PolicingDiversification of the Police WorkforceAboriginal Peoples and Policing- Aboriginal Peoples in Canada at a Glance- Aboriginal Overrepresentation at a Glance- Some Grounds for OptimismRacial Profiling or Racialized Policing?Gender and PolicingChallenges for Women and PolicingLGBTQ Communities and PolicingGlossaryReferencesIndex

Editorial Reviews

"One of the aspects that I like is that [this text] engages the students in critical thinking exercises throughout each chapter and not just at the end." --Earl Andersen, Langara College