Cancer Imaging: Instrumentation and Applications

Other | November 21, 2007

byM. A. Hayat, M. A. Hayat

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This second of two volumes on Cancer Imaging covers the three major topics of imaging instrumentation, general imaging applications, and imaging of a number of human cancer types. Where the first volume emphasized lung and breast carcinomas, Volume 2 focuses on prostate, colorectal, ovarian, gastrointestinal, and bone cancers. Although cancer therapy is not the main subject of this series, the crucial role of imaging in selecting the type of therapy and its post-treatment assessment are discussed. The major emphasis in this volume is on cancer imaging; however, differentiation between benign tumors and malignant tumors is also discussed.

This volume is sold individually, and Cancer Imaging, Volume 1 [ISBN: 978-0-12-370468-9] sells separately for $189 and also as part of a two volume set [ISBN: 978-0-12-374212-4] for
$299.

• Concentrates on the application of imaging technology to the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate, colorectal, ovarian, gastrointestinal, and bone cancers
• Addresses relationship between radiation dose and image quality
• Discusses the role of molecular imaging in identifying changes for the emergence and progression of cancer at the cellular and/or molecular levels

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From the Publisher

This second of two volumes on Cancer Imaging covers the three major topics of imaging instrumentation, general imaging applications, and imaging of a number of human cancer types. Where the first volume emphasized lung and breast carcinomas, Volume 2 focuses on prostate, colorectal, ovarian, gastrointestinal, and bone cancers. Although...

Dr. Hayat has published extensively in the fields of microscopy, cytology, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and antigen retrieval methods. He is Distinguished Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Kean University, Union, New Jersey, USA.

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Format:OtherDimensions:792 pages, 1 × 1 × 1 inPublished:November 21, 2007Publisher:Elsevier ScienceLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0080553761

ISBN - 13:9780080553764

Customer Reviews of Cancer Imaging: Instrumentation and Applications

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Extra Content

Table of Contents

Contents of Volume 1

Contributors

Preface

Selected Glossary

Part I: Instrumentation

Chapter 1.1 Proton Computed Tomography

Introduction

Review of Prior Studies on Proton Imaging

Image Formation Principles of Proton Computed Tomography

Detector Design and Data Acquisition for Proton Computed Tomography

Image Reconstruction Algorithms

Discussion and Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 1.2 Multidetector Computed Tomography

Introduction

Evolution of Computed Tomography

Basic Physics of Multidetector Computed Tomography and Image Quality

Artifacts in Multidetector Computed Tomography

Radiation Dose Considerations

Electrocardiogram-Gated Multidetector Computed Tomography

Use of Intravenous Contrast in Multidetector Computed Tomography Oncologic Imaging

Three-Dimensional and Multiplanar Reformations

Three-Dimensional Volume Rendering

Volumetric Analysis of Lesions

Computer-Aided Detection

References

Chapter 1.3 Megavoltage Computed Tomography Imaging

Introduction

Fundamentals of Megavoltage Imaging

Design and Performance Characteristics of Tomotherapy Megavoltage Computed Tomography

Clinical Implementation of Megavoltage Computed Tomography

Use of Megavoltage Computed Tomography for Daily Alignment: Head and Neck Cancers

Adaptive Image Guidance: Lung Cancers

Image-Based Volumetric Dose Calculations: Prostate Cancer

Image-Based Volumetric Dose Calculations: Intracavitary Brachytherapy

References

Chapter 1.4 Integrated SET-3000G/X Positron Emission Tomography Scanner

Introduction

System Description

Continuous Emission and Spiral Transmission Scanning

PET/CT System with cEST Scanning

Discussion

References

Chapter 1.5 High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Introduction

Samples

Spectral Analysis

Results

Discussion

References

Chapter 1.6 Spatial Dependency of Noise and Its Correlation among Various Imaging Modalities

Introduction

Impact of Noise in Images

Noise

Noise Variation

Noise Correlation

Autocorrelation Function

Noise Correlation in Various Modalities

Discussion

References

Chapter 1.7 Computed Tomography Scan Methods Account for Respiratory Motion in Lung Cancer

Introduction

Slow Scan Computed Tomography vs. Fast Scan Computed Tomography

Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography

Respiratory Gating Computed Tomography

Volumetric Cine Computed Tomography

Respiratory-Correlated Segment Computed Tomography

References

Chapter 1.8 Respiratory Motion Artifact Using Positron Emission Tomography/ Computed Tomography

Introduction

Origin of the Artifact

Appearance of the Artifact

Consequences of the Artifact

Avoiding the Effects of the Artifact

References

Chapter 1.9 Gadolinium-Based Contrast Media Used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: An Overview

Introduction

Mechanism of Action

Classification

Clinical Safety

Other Applications

References

Chapter 1.10 Molecular Imaging of Cancer with Superparamagnetic Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles

Introduction

Iron Oxide Core and Superparamagnetism

Synthesis and Coating

Biocompatibility and Biodistribution

Cell Tracking

Organ-Specific/Passive Targeting

Active Targeting

Apoptosis

Magnetic Relaxation Switches

Imaging of Gene Expression

High-Throughput Screening

References

Chapter 1.11 Adverse Reactions to Iodinated Contrast Media

Introduction

Acute General Adverse Reactions to Contrast Media

Delayed General Adverse Reactions to Contrast Media

Contrast Media-Induced Nephrotoxicity

Contrast Media Interactions with Other Drugs and Clinical Tests

Conclusion

References

Part II: General Imaging Applications

Chapter 2.1 The Accuracy of Diagnostic Radiology

Introduction

Traditional Methods of Measuring Diagnostic Accuracy

Signal Detection Theory

Mammography Screening: Misses and False Alarms

Mammography Screening: Radiologists and Pathologists

Screening Mammography with Computer-Aided Detection (CAD)

Conclusion

References

Chapter 2.2 Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging: Applications to Medicine

Introduction

Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging System

Principles of Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging

Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging Contrast Mechanisms

Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging Contrast Mechanisms in Breast Cancer Specimens

Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging Conventional Radiography: Comparison of Contrast Mechanisms in Breast Cancer Specimens

References

Chapter 2.3 Role of Imaging in Drug Development

Introduction

Drug Development

Role of Imaging

Technical Considerations

Applications

Discussion

References

Chapter 2.4 Characterization of Multiple Aspects of Tumor Physiology by Multitracer Positron Emission Tomography

Introduction

PET Tracers and Imaging Targets

Complementary Value of Imaging Multiple Tracers

Technical Challenges for Imaging Multiple Tracers

The Future: Rapid Multitracer Positron Emission Tomography

References

Chapter 2.5 Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Metastases

Introduction

Methodology of Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Clinical Results of Whole-Body MRI for Tumor Staging

References

Chapter 2.6 Whole-Body Imaging in Oncology: Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT)

Introduction

Technical Considerations

Clinical Considerations

References

Chapter 2.7 Whole-Body Cancer Imaging: Simple Image Fusion with Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

Introduction

Hardware and Software Fusion

Fusion Technique for Cancer Imaging

Advanced Fusion with Advanced Software

References

Chapter 2.8 Whole-Body Tumor Imaging: O-[11C] Methyl-L-Tyrosine/Positron Emission Tomography

Introduction

Development of O-[11C]Methyl-k-Tyrosine

Whole-Body Tumor Imaging Using OMT Compared with FDG

Brain Tumor Imaging Using OMT Compared with MET

Conclusion

References

Chapter 2.9 Tumor Proliferation: 2-[11C]-Thymidine Positron Emission Tomography

Introduction

[11C]-Thymidine Positron Tomography Methodology

Historical Development of Thymidine Positron Emission Tomography

Validation Studies

[11C]-MethyI-Thymidine

2-[11C]-Thymidine

Validation of 2-[11C]-Thymidine Positron Emission Tomography in Patients

Development and Application of Kinetic Models

Kinetic Analysis of 2-[11C]-Thymidine Positron Emission Tomography Images

Pharmacodynamic Studies

Comparison of 2-[11C]-Thymidine with FDG-PET and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

2-[11C]-Thymidine PET to Detect Antitumor Activity in Clinical Drug Trials

Discussion and Summary

References

Chapter 2.10 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography in Oncology: Advantages and Limitations

Introduction

Mechanisms of 18FDG Uptake

18SFDG PET Uptake Patterns

Advantages of 18FDG PET

Limitations of 18FDG PET

Clinical Indications

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 2.11 Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Tumor Hypoxia and Angiogenesis: Imaging Biology and Guiding Therapy

Introduction

Hypoxia-Induced Changes in Tumor Behavior

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF)

Angiogenesis

Tumor Hypoxia and Clinical Outcome: New Approach to an Old Problem

The Importance of Identifying Hypoxia in Tumors

Methods to Evaluate Tumor Hypoxia

Polarographic Electrode Measurements of Tissue Oxygenation

Evaluating Angiogenesis

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Hypoxia Imaging

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 2.12 Noninvasive Determination of Angiogenesis: Molecular Targets and Tracer Development

Introduction

Possible Targets for Imaging Angiogenesis

Summary and Conclusion

References

Chapter 2.13 Gross Tumor Volume and Clinical Target Volume: Anatomical Computed Tomography and Functional FDG-PET

Introduction

Radioprotection of the Patient

Method

Discussion

Problems and Their Solutions

Expected Improvement

References

Chapter 2.14 Post-Treatment Changes in Tumor Microenvironment: Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Introduction

Contrast Media

Acquisition of T1 Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Data

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced-MRI in Experimental Oncology

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced-MRI in Clinical Oncology

Limitations

Conclusions and Perspectives

Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging

References

Chapter 2.15 In Vivo Molecular Imaging in Oncology: Principles of Reporter Gene Expression Imaging

Introduction

Reporter Gene Expression Imaging: A Subfield of Molecular Imaging

Principles of Reporter Gene Expression Imaging

Categories of Reporter Gene Expression Imaging Systems

Principles of Optical Reporter Gene Imaging in Living Subjects

Instrumentation and Techniques for Bioluminescence Imaging

Future Outlook

References

Chapter 2.16 Medical Radiation-Induced Cancer

Introduction

Diagnostic Radiation Exposure

Therapeutic Radiation Exposure

Discussion

References

Part III: Applications to Specific Cancers

Chapter 3.1 Adrenal Lesions: Role of Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography, and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

Introduction

Computed Tomography

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Positron Emission Tomography and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) Biopsy

Summary

References

Chapter 3.2 Hemangioendothelioma: Whole-Body Technetium-99m Red Blood Cell Imaging-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Introduction

Histopathologic Classification

Clinical Presentation and Radiology of Hemangioendothelioma

Technetium-99m Red Blood Cell Imaging

Summary

References

Chapter 3.3 Malignant Bone Involvement: Assessment Using Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

Introduction

SPECT and PET Imaging of Malignant Bone Involvement: Technological and Radiochemical Aspects

Imaging of Bone Involvement in Common Human Malignancies

References

Chapter 3.4 Bone Metastasis: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography

Introduction

Bone Metastasis

Technical Aspects for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography

Clinical Applications for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography Fusion

References

Chapter 3.5 Bone Cancer: Comparison of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography

Introduction

What is 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography?

What is Bone Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography?

FDG-PET vs. Bone SPECT for Bone Metastases in Various Human Malignancies

Summary

References

Chapter 3.6 Bone Metastasis in Endemic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography

Introduction

Diagnosis and Staging

Management

Bone Metastasis

References

Chapter 3.7 Colorectal Polyps: Magnetic Resonance Colonography

Colorectal Cancer Screening

Virtual Colonoscopy

Magnetic Resonance Colonography

Future Directions

References

Chapter 3.8 Early Bile Duct Carcinoma: Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, Cholangiography, and Magnetic Resonance Cholangiography

Introduction

Pathology of Early Bile Duct Cancer

Sonographic Features

Computed Tomography Features

Cholangiography and Magnetic Resonance Cholangiographic Features

Cholangiographic Features

Comparison between Pathology and Imaging

References

Chapter 3.9 Incidental Extracolonic Lesions: Computed Tomography

Introduction

Computed Tomography Colonography Technique

Minimal Preparation Computed Tomography Technique

Extracolonic Findings in Computed Tomography Colonography and Minimum Preparation Computed Tomography

Comparison of Reported Studies

Practical Implications and Handling of Extracolonic Findings in Specific Organs

Conclusions

References

Chapter 3.10 Colorectal Cancer: Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Cellular and Molecular Imaging

Introduction

Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Basic Principles

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Colorectal Cancer in Clinical Use

Imaging Strategies for the Future

Conclusion

References

Chapter 3.11 Potential New Staging Perspectives in Colorectal Cancer: Whole-Body PET/ CT-Colonography

Introduction

Indications

Patient Preparation and Imaging Procedure

Image Evaluation

Clinical Experience

Perspectives and Considerations

Possible Indications and Perspectives

Limitations and Conclusion

References

Chapter 3.12 Thoracic Esophageal Cancer: Interstitial Magnetic Lymphography Using Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide

Introduction

Method

Discussion

Reference

Chapter 3.13 Esophageal Cancer: Comparison of 18F-Fluoro-3-Deoxy-3-L-Fluorothymidine-Positron Emission Tomography with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Results

Discussion

References

Chapter 3.14 Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Positron Emission Tomography and Contrast-Enhanced Helical Computed Tomography

Introduction

Imaging Techniques to Localize and Monitor Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

Use of Imatinib in Treatment of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography

Metabolic and Morphological Imaging

References

Chapter 3.15 Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Computed Tomography

Introduction

Pathologic Features

Clinical Features

Computed Tomography Features

Conclusion

References

Chapter 3.16 Gastrointestinal Lipomas: Computed Tomography

Introduction

Computed Tomography

Other Imaging Methods

References

Chapter 3.17 Computed Tomography in Peritoneal Surface Malignancy

Introduction

Computed Tomography Diagnosis

Computed Tomography Patient Selection

Interpretive Computer Tomography Classification of the Small Bowel and Its Mesentery

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 3.18 Gastrointestinal Tumors: Computed Tomography/Endoscopic Ultrasonography

Introduction

Tumor Size

Problems in Staging Classification

Preoperative Three-Dimensional Structure and Volumetry of Gastrointestinal Tumors

Future Prospects

References

Chapter 3.19 Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography

Introduction

Principles, Techniques, and Pitfalls

Pancreas

Biliary Tract

References

Chapter 3.20 Occult Primary Head and Neck Carcinoma: Role of Positron Emission Tomography Imaging

Introduction

Evaluation

Positron Emission Tomography

Panendoscopy

Treatment

Unknown Primary Adenocarcinoma

Melanoma of Unknown Primary Tumor

Cystic Metastatic Disease in the Neck

Conclusions/Future Direction

References

Chapter 3.21 Benign and Malignant Nodes in the Neck: Magnetic Resonance Microimaging

Introduction

Technical Details

Anatomy of the Lymph Node

Metastatic Nodes

Nodal Lymphomas and Infectious Lymphadenopathy

Imaging Strategy for Diagnosing Lymphadenopathy in the Neck

References

Chapter 3.22 Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Comparison of Computed Tomography with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusion

References

Chapter 3.23 Computed Tomography in Renal Cell Carcinoma

Introduction

Multidetector Computed Tomography Technique

Staging of Renal Cell Carcinoma

Role of Multidetector Computed Tomography in Conservative Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma

Multidetector Computed Tomography of Cystic Renal Cell Carcinoma

Multidetector Computed Tomography Features of Specific Subtypes of Renal Cell Carcinoma

Differential Diagnosis of Renal Cell Carcinoma with Multidetector Computed Tomography

Radiation Dose Associated with Multidetector Computed Tomography of Renal Cell Carcinoma

References

Chapter 3.24 Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes: Multislice Computed Tomography

Introduction

Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes

Multislice Computerized Tomography

Differentiation of RCC Subtypes by MDCT

Discussion

References

Chapter 3.25 Renal Impairment: Comparison of Noncontrast Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Urography, and Combined Abdominal Radiography/ Ultrasonography

Introduction

Combined Plain Abdominal Radiography and Ultrasonography

Noncontrast Computed Tomography

Magnetic Resonance Urography

Materials and Methods

Results

Discussion and Conclusion

References

Chapter 3.26 Renal Lesions: Magnetic Resonance Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

Introduction

Technique

Renal Diffusion

Renal Normal Parenchyma

References

Chapter 3.27 Malignant Lymphoma: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography

Introduction

Principle and Methods

Positron Emission Tomography and Staging

Positron Emission Tomography and Early Response to Therapy

Post-Therapy Positron Emission Tomography

Positron Emission Tomography before Transplantation

Positron Emission Tomography and Radiotherapy and Radioimmunotherapy

Positron Emission Tomography and Relapse

References

Chapter 3.28 Malignant Melanoma: Positron Emission Tomography

Introduction

Positron Emission Tracers

Receptor-Specific PET Tracers

Conclusion

References

Chapter 3.29 Multiple Myeloma: Scintigraphy Using Technetium-99m-2- Methoxyisobutylisonitrile

Introduction

Technetium-99m-MIBI Scintigraphy

References

Chapter 3.30 Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography

Introduction

Pretreatment Evaluation

Post-Treatment Tumor Evaluation

Response to Radiotherapy

Response to Chemotherapy

Residual or Recurrent Tumor

Radiation-Induced Complications

Conclusion

References

Chapter 3.31 Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma for Staging and Re-Staging with 18F-FDG-PET/CT

Introduction

Methods: Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging Protocol

Results and Discussion

References

Chapter 3.32 Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors: Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Introduction

Granulosa Cell Tumors

Fibroma, Fibrothecoma, and Thecoma

Sclerosing Stromal Tumor of Ovary

Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor

Steroid Cell Tumor

Summary

References

Chapter 3.33 Malignant Germ Cell Tumors: Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Introduction

Dermoid Cyst with Malignant Transformation

Immature Teratoma

Dysgerminoma

Endodermal Sinus Tumor

Choriocarcinoma

Embryonal Carcinoma

Malignant Mixed Germ Cell Tumors

References

Chapter 3.34 Ovarian Small Round Cell Tumors: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Introduction

Imaging Findings

References

Chapter 3.35 Ovarian Borderline Serous Surface Papillary Tumor: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Introduction

Discussion

References

Chapter 3.36 Chronic Pancreatitis versus Pancreatic Cancer: Positron Emission Tomography

Introduction

Usefulness of FDG-PET

Limitations of FDG-PET

Differential Diagnosis between Pancreatic Cancer and Inflammatory Pancreatic Lesions

is There Any Better Tracer Than FDG?

Conclusions and Future Perspective

References

Chapter 3.37 Pancreatic Cancer: p-[123l] Iodo-L-Phenylalanine Single Photon Emission Tomography for Tumor Imaging

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Results

Discussion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 3.38 Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumors: Endoscopic Ultrasonography

Introduction

Classification of Islet Cell Tumors

Detection and Localization by Endoscopic Ultrasonography

Endoscopic Ultrasonographic Findings of Islet Cell Tumors

Atypical Manifestations and Differential Diagnosis

References

Chapter 3.39 Parotid Gland Tumors: Advanced Imaging Technologies

Introduction

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Imaging

Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Calculation

Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging (1H-MRS)

Positron Emission Tomography and Scintigraphy

Benign Parotid Tumors

Malignant Parotid Tumors

References

Chapter 3.40 Pituitary Macroadenomas: Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Endonasal Endoscopy

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

Future Directions

References

Chapter 3.41 Penile Cancer Staging: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

Introduction

Etiology, Histology, and Staging

Therapy

Diagnostics of the Primary Malignancy

Lymph Node Metastases

Scintigraphic Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

Conventional Imaging Modalities for Staging of Penile Cancer

PET and PET/CT for Staging of Penile Cancer

Summary

References

Chapter 3.42 Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors: [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography

Introduction

Standard Diagnostic Procedures

Treatment and Outcome

Positron Emission Tomography Imaging in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor

Summary

References

Chapter 3.43 Prostate Cancer: 11C-Choline-Positron Emission Tomography

Introduction

Principle and Methods

11C-Choline PET for Intraprostatic Tumor Localization

11 C-Choline PET for Staging of Prostate Cancer

11C-Choline PET for Detection of Prostate Cancer Recurrence

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 3.44 Metabolic Characterization of Prostate Cancer: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Introduction

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Current Techniques

Current In Vivo Prostate Cancer Spectroscopy

Future Directions

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 3.45 Prostate Cancer: Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

Introduction

Basics and Recent Advances of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

Current Problems and Future Directions of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

References

Chapter 3.46 Prostatic Secretory Protein of 94 Amino Acids Gene-Directed Transgenic Prostate Cancer: Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Microimaging

Introduction

Brief Review of PSP94

PSP94 Gene-Directed Genetically Engineered Mouse Prostate Cancer Models

Microimaging of GE-PC Mouse Models: Importance of Noninvasive Techniques

PSP-TGMAP Microimaging Methods

Results of PSP-TGMAP Imaging Studies

Future Directions: Imaging of Prostate Tumor Vascularity

References

Chapter 3.47 Prostate Cancer within the Transition Zone: Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

References

Chapter 3.48 Rectal Wall Invasion of Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Transrectal Ultrasound

Introduction

Selection of Patients for Radical Surgery

Determining the Appropriate Surgical Procedure

References

Chapter 3.49 Local Staging of Prostate Cancer Using Endorectal Coil Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Introduction

Tumor Characteristics

Grading and Partin Tables

Prognostic Factors

Staging of Prostate Cancer

Imaging Techniques in Staging

Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Local Staging of Prostate Cancer

Conclusion

References

Chapter 3.50 Extremity Sarcoma: Positron Emission Tomography

Introduction

Evolution of FDG-PET in Extremity Sarcoma

Role of FDG-PET in the Differential Diagnosis of Connective Tissue Lesions

Role of FDG-PET in Grading Soft Tissue Sarcoma

Role of FDG-PET in Directing Biopsy

Role of FDG-PET in Predicting Sarcoma-Specific Death

Role of FDG-PET in Monitoring Response to Therapy

Bone Sarcoma

Role of FDG-PET in Evaluating Sarcoma Recurrence

Future Directions

References

Chapter 3.51 Retroperitoneal Synovial Sarcoma: Color Doppler Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Introduction

Radiologic Findings

Conclusion

References

Chapter 3.52 Thymoma: Computed Tomography

Introduction

Computed Tomography

Therapy

Conclusions

References

Chapter 3.53 Hemolymphangiomatosis of the Spleen: Conventional Diagnostic Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Superparamagnetic Contrast Agent

Introduction

Pathology

Imaging

Differential Diagnosis and Conclusions

References

Chapter 3.54 Thyroid Cancer: 18F-FDG-Positron Emission Tomography

Introduction

Assessment of Thyroid Nodules

Thyroid Positron Emission Tomography Incidentaloma

Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

Hürthle Cell Carcinoma

Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

Medullary Thyroid Cancer

Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 3.55 Thyroid Cancer:

Introduction

18F-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography

Biological Mechanism of the Enhanced FDG-Uptake in Thyroid Cancer

FDG-PET in the Diagnostic Assessment of a Thyroid Nodule

FDG-PET in the Follow-Up of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

FDG-PET in Medullary Thyroid Cancer

FDG-PET in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid FDG-PET Incidentaloma

References

Chapter 3.56 Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer in Children: Value of Power Doppler Ultrasound

Introduction

Pathogenesis

Clinical Presentation

Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging

Benign Thyroid Lesions

Thyroid Cancer

References

Index