Cerebellum and Rhythmical Movements by Y.I. ArshavskyCerebellum and Rhythmical Movements by Y.I. Arshavsky

Cerebellum and Rhythmical Movements

byY.I. Arshavsky, I.M. Gelfand, G.N. Orlovsky

Paperback | November 17, 2011

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After reading the manuscript, some biologists inquired why, on the basis of the broad experimental material presented in this book, we had not come up with a model describing the operation of the cerebellum. To answer this question, we decided to write a preface to our book. How the nervous system copes with the complexity of the world is one of the central problems of neurophys­ iology. The question was clearly formulated for the frrst time by N. A. Bernstein. Considering the problem of motor control, he pointed out that the main objective of motor coordination is to overcome the redundant number of degrees of freedom of the motor apparatus or, in other words, to diminish the number of independent variables which control the movement (Bernstein 1967). These I. M. Gelfand and M. L. Zetlin ideas were further developed by (Gelfand and Zetlin 1966). They proposed, in particular, the "non-individualized" ("non-addressed") mode of control in complex systems, where only the highest levels of the system have the full notion about the fmal task while the main "effectors" act on the basis of very limited information. These propositions were made by Gelfand and Zetlin in a very general form, but, nevertheless, proved to be fruitful in determining the direction of experimental research. For instance, the discovery of the "locomotory region" of the brain stem (Shik et al.
Title:Cerebellum and Rhythmical MovementsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:166 pagesPublished:November 17, 2011Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3642708307

ISBN - 13:9783642708305

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Table of Contents

I Spinal Mechanisms of Stepping and Scratching Movements.- 1. Crucial Role of the Spinal Cord in Control of Stepping and Scratching Movements.- 2. Preparations and Evoking of Movements.- 3. Hindlimb Movements and Muscle Activity.- 4. Role of Central Mechanisms and Afferent Signals in Generating Rhythmic Movements.- 5. Afferent Signals.- 6. Localization of the Rhythm Generator. Activity of Neurons of the "Leading" Region of the Lumbo-Sacral Spinal Cord.- 7. Conclusion.- II Signals Coming to the Cerebellum.- 1. Cerebellar Cortex and its Afferent Connections.- 2. Dorsal Spino-Cerebellar Tract.- 3. Ventral Spino-Cerebellar Tract.- 4. Spino-Reticulo-Cerebellar Pathway.- 5. VSCT and SRCP convey Messages about Activity in the "Leading" Region of Lumbo-Sacral Cord.- 6. Spino-Olivo-Cerebellar Pathway.- 7. Conclusion.- III Signals Conveyed by Descending Tracts.- 1. Vestibulo-Spinal Tract.- 2. Reticulo-spinal Tract.- 3. Rubro-Spinal Tract.- 4. Influences of Descending Tracts upon Motor Activity.- 5. Conclusion.- IV Role of Different Input Signals for Generating Cerebellar Output Signals.- 1. Role of Signals Concerning Peripheral and Central Processes During Locomotion.- 2. Role of Signals Concerning Peripheral and Central Processes During Scratching.- 3. Role of Signals Coming via VSCT and SRCP.- 4. Conclusion.- V Activity of Cerebellar Neurons.- 1. Purkinje Cells.- 2. Fastigial Nucleus.- 3. Interpositus Nucleus.- 4. Lateral Nucleus.- 5. Conclusion.- VI External Inputs of the Spino-Cerebellar Loop.- VII Role of the Cerebellum in the Control of Locomotion and Scratch Reflex.- References.