Safety regulation is society's way of keeping the genie of technology in the bottle, whilst still exploiting its power for creating wealth and change. It is a difficult compromise to make. Regulators often have a thankless task. If all seems to go well they are painted as too repressive and anti-technological. If disaster strikes, the searchlight of media attention increasingly focuses on them, looking for lax enforcement, blind eyes being turned and cosy relations with the regulated. This book explores the dilemmas of the regulator through case studies presented by the regulators themselves and through research-based analyses from different disciplines of the workings of the regulators and the regulatory system. More importantly it surveys the tools available to resolve the dilemmas and asks what we know about their successes and shortcomings and what can be learned over the boundaries of industries and technologies about the principles of successful safety regulation. Chapters are written by authors from seven countries, with an international perspective. They examine the role of certification, safety cases, strictly enforced detailed rules, professional regulation and self-regulation. The book covers new risks such as those from medical devices and biotechnology, as well as the well-known fields of nuclear power, chemical plants, mining, oil and gas production, railways and the traditionally difficult area of small companies.