Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Imaging: Advances And Applications by Michael T. McmahonChemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Imaging: Advances And Applications by Michael T. Mcmahon

Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Imaging: Advances And Applications

EditorMichael T. Mcmahon, Assaf A. Gilad, Jeff W.M. Bulte

Hardcover | December 1, 2017

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This is the first textbook dedicated to CEST imaging and covers the fundamental principles of saturation transfer, key features of CEST agents that enable the production of imaging contrast, and practical aspects of preparing image-acquisition and post-processing schemes suited for in vivo applications. CEST is a powerful MRI contrast mechanism with unique features, and the rapid expansion it has seen over the past 15 years since its original discovery in 2000 has created a need for a graduate-level handbook describing all aspects of pre-clinical, translational, and clinical CEST imaging. The book provides an illustrated historical perspective by leaders at the five key sites who developed CEST imaging, from the initial saturation transfer NMR experiments performed in the 1960s in Stockholm, Sweden, described by Sture Fors¿ to the work on integrating the basic principles of CEST into imaging by Robert Balaban, Dean Sherry, Silvio Aime, and Peter van Zijl in the United States and Italy.

The editors, Drs. Michael T. McMahon, Assaf A. Gilad, Jeff W. M. Bulte, and Peter C. M. van Zijl, have been pioneers developing this field at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Kennedy Krieger Institute including contributions to Nature Medicine, Nature Biotechnology, Nature Materials, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. As recognition for their initial development of the field, Drs. van Zijl and Balaban were awarded the Laukien Prize in April 2016, established in 1999 to honor the memory of Professor Gunther Laukien, a co-founder of Bruker Biospin GmbH.

Michael T. McMahon, Ph.D, is an Associate Professor of Radiology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a Research Scientist in the F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging at the Kennedy Krieger Institute. Dr. McMahon earned his Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champ...
Title:Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Imaging: Advances And ApplicationsFormat:HardcoverDimensions:496 pages, 9.41 × 7.24 × 0.98 inPublished:December 1, 2017Publisher:Taylor and FrancisLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9814745707

ISBN - 13:9789814745703

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Table of Contents

Section I: From the 1960s to the 2010s: How Saturation Transfer Was First Discovered and Then Migrated Into Imaging

Discovery of the "Saturation Transfer" Method

Development of Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer in Bethesda

History of In Vivo Exchange Transfer Spectroscopy and Imaging in Baltimore

Before There Was CEST

Early CEST Experiments

Amide Proton Transfer¿Weighted MRI

Expansion of the CEST Efforts

Translation to Human Scanners

Active Growth in CEST

Early Discovery and Investigations of paraCEST Agents in Dallas

Birth of CEST Agents in Torino

Section II: Pulse Sequence, Imaging, and Post-processing Schemes for Detecting CEST Contrast

General Theory of CEST Image Acquisition and Post-Processing





Uniform-MT Method to Separate CEST Contrast from Asymmetric MT Effects

Saturation of a Spin-1/2 System

Uniform Saturation of a Dipolar-Coupled Spin-1/2 System

Uniform-MT Methodology

Application to Brain MRI

Application to Knee MRI


HyperCEST Imaging

HyperCEST in the Historic Context of CEST Development

Hyperpolarized Xenon NMR

Xenon Host Structures

Phospholipid Membrane Studies/Delta Spectroscopy

Live Cell NMR of Exchanging Xenon


Section III: diaCEST/paraCEST/lipoCEST Contrast Probes

Current Landscape of diaCEST Imaging Agents


Molecules with Alkyl Amines and Amides

Molecules with Alkyl Hydroxyls

N-H Containing Heterocyclic Compounds

Salicylic Acid and Anthranilic Acid Analogues

Macromolecules with Labile Protons

Fluorine and Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer

Evolution of Genetically Encoded CEST MRI Reporters: Opportunities and Challenges


CEST MRI Contrast Generation Mechanism

Genetically Encoded CEST MRI Reporters

Genetically Encoded Hyperpolarized Xenon (129Xe) CEST MRI Reporters

Considerations in Developing CEST MRI Genetically Encoded Reporters

Current Challenges and Future Directions


ParaCEST Agents: Design, Discovery, and Implementation


Lanthanide-Induced Shifts

T 1 and T 2 Considerations in the Design of paraCEST Agents

Water Molecule Exchange, Proton Exchange, and CEST Contrast

Modulation of Inner-Sphere Water Exchange Rates

Techniques to Measure Exchange Rates


Transition Metal paraCEST Probes as Alternatives to Lanthanides


Coordination Chemistry of Iron(II), Cobalt(II), and Nickel(II)

NMR Spectra, CEST Spectra, and Imaging

Responsive Agents

Toward In Vivo Studies


Responsive paraCEST MRI Contrast Agents and Their Biomedical Applications


ParaCEST Agents That Detect Enzyme Activities

ParaCEST Agents That Detect Nucleic Acids

ParaCEST Agents That Detect Metabolites

ParaCEST Agents That Detect Ions

ParaCEST Agents That Detect Redox State

ParaCEST Agents That Measure pH

ParaCEST Agents That Measure Temperature

Future Directions for Clinical Translation of paraCEST Agents

Saturating Compartmentalized Water Protons: Liposome- and Cell-Based CEST Agents


Basic Features of lipoCEST/cellCEST Agents


Section IV: Emerging Clinical Applications of CEST imaging

Principles and Applications of Amide Proton Transfer Imaging


APT Imaging Principle and Theory

APT Imaging of Stroke

Differentiation between Ischemia and Hemorrhage

APT Imaging of Brain Tumors

Differentiation between Active Glioma and Radiation Necrosis

Conclusions and Future Directions

Cartilage and Intervertebral Disc Imaging and Glycosaminoglycan Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (gagCEST) Experiment


Composition and Organization of Cartilage

Composition and Organization of Intervertebral Disc

MRI Techniques for Measuring GAG (Other than CEST)



GlucoCEST: Imaging Glucose in Tumors


Cancer Metabolism and the Warburg Effect

Imaging Methods Targeting Metabolism

GlucoCEST: The Concept

GlucoCEST: State of the Art

GlucoCEST: Good Practices

Conclusion: Remaining Open Questions

Creatine Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Imaging


Study of Energy Metabolism: 31P MRS

Development of Creatine CEST


Iodinated Contrast Media as pH-Responsive CEST Agents

Iopamidol as a diaCEST Agent in Preclinical Studies

Iopamidol as diaCEST Agent on a Clinical MRI Scanner (3 T)

Iopromide as a diaCEST Agent in Preclinical Studies

Iobitridol as a diaCEST Agent in Preclinical Studies


Editorial Reviews

"This textbook is very helpful for those who are eager to fully understand the principles and development of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) techniques. One strength of this book is in the discussion of probes, and another strength is having Sture Fors¿and Robert Balaban describe their early studies. This book will have a great impact promoting the clinical translation of CEST imaging." ¿Prof. Renhua Wu, Shantou University, China "This book presents an in-depth and comprehensive description of CEST physics, techniques, and applications. It is in time for the dawn of label-free molecular imaging that explores chemical exchange phenomena the nature offers. It is also a collection of very updated perspectives of the future of CEST magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), quite informative, and fun to read for imaging physicists, radiologists, and clinician scientists." ¿Prof. Ed X. Wu, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong "This is an excellent book on CEST MRI with state-of-the-art chapters from thought leaders in the field. It touches on all aspects of CEST: image acquisition methods and data processing, development of exogenous CEST probes, and applications of CEST in clinical and biomedical imaging. A very valuable addition to biomedical imaging canon, and a text that will be beneficial to students and experts alike." ¿Prof. Peter Caravan, Harvard Medical School, USA "This book has been edited by faculty from one of the leading centers with extensive experience of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI and is the first to focus exclusively on this specific imaging technique. The authors include many of the leaders in the field, and it belongs on the shelf of anyone seriously involved in CEST work.¿ It has broad breadth of coverage which makes it a go-to reference for overviews of many sub-specialty applications.¿ It is clearly valuable as a standard in the field and I expect it will serve as the essential starting point for in-coming graduate students beginning CEST research and for established researchers delving into a new area." ¿Dr. Daniel F. Gochberg, Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, USA "Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) can be used to detect proteins, peptides, metabolites, and probe molecules in 1H MR images of tissue water, with observation via the water resonance massively increasing the sensitivity of their detection. This timely book describes the history of the technique¿s development and the underlying theory and then goes on to review its latest applications. It is a comprehensive and insightful book written by the leaders in the field. It is a must read book for anyone already in the CEST field, or thinking of entering the field and, given the growing popularity of the methods described here, should be read by anybody working in the field of in vivo MR." ¿Prof. Kevin Brindle, University of Cambridge, UK, Molecular Imaging and Biology, 2017