Children's Speech: An Evidence-based Approach To Assessment And Intervention

Paperback | June 3, 2016

bySharynne Mcleod, Elise Baker

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Children's Speech distills scientific evidence from around the world on sound disorders across the areas of speech acquisition, assessment, analysis, diagnosis, and intervention, and presents it with practical knowledge to prepare speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to work with children and their families. The book is guided by two contemporary frameworks that direct the successful management of speech sound disorders in children: evidence-based practice (EBP) and the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health—Children and Youth (ICF-CY). The foundation knowledge covers important topics including defining the population, types of speech sound disorders, anatomical structures, articulation and transcription of speech sounds, and theoretical foundations of speech and speech acquisition. Practical evidence-based knowledge is covered in chapters that mirror the stages of contact when working with children with speech sound disorders including assessment, analysis, goal setting, intervention principles and plans, intervention procedures, phonological interventions, motor speech interventions, and the conduct of EBP. The last chapter provides comprehensive clinical information for five clinical cases, including transcribed speech samples, case history information, assessment results and other real-life material. Throughout, readers are directed to complete clinical application tasks, drawing on the case-based information in this final chapter.

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Children's Speech distills scientific evidence from around the world on sound disorders across the areas of speech acquisition, assessment, analysis, diagnosis, and intervention, and presents it with practical knowledge to prepare speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to work with children and their families. The book is guided by two c...

From the Jacket

Children's Speech distills scientific evidence from around the world on sound disorders across the areas of speech acquisition, assessment, analysis, diagnosis, and intervention, and presents it with practical knowledge to prepare speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to work with children and their families. The book is guided by two c...

Sharynne McLeod, Ph.D. is a speech-language pathologist and professor of speech and language acquisition from Charles Sturt University, Australia. She is an elected Fellow of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and Life Member of Speech Pathology Australia. She is an elected board member of the International Association o...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:656 pages, 10.7 × 8.4 × 1 inPublished:June 3, 2016Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0132755963

ISBN - 13:9780132755962

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Table of Contents

Brief Table of Contents 
Preface xiii
About the Authors xvii
Acknowledgments xix
Chapter 1 Children with Speech Sound Disorders 1
Chapter 2 Classification, Causes, and Co-occurrence 37
Chapter 3 Articulatory Foundations of Speech 60
Chapter 4 Transcription of Speech 84
Chapter 5 Theoretical Foundations of Children’s Speech 134
Chapter 6 Children’s Speech Acquisition 175
Chapter 7 Assessment Preparation, Purpose, and Types 220
Chapter 8 Assessment of Children’s Speech 244
Chapter 9 Analysis of Children’s Speech 288
Chapter 10 Goal Setting 340
Chapter 11 Intervention Principles and Plans 372
Chapter 12 Intervention Procedures and Evaluation 412
Chapter 13 Phonological Intervention Approaches 434
Chapter 14 Articulatory and Motor Speech Intervention Approaches 483
Chapter 15 Evidence-Based Practice in Practice 520
Chapter 16 Individual Children with Speech Sound Disorders:
Case Studies 541
Glossary 570
References 583
Index 622

Detailed Table of Contents 

Preface xiii 
About the Authors xvii 
Acknowledgments xix
Chapter 1 Children with Speech Sound Disorders 1
Overview 2
Defining SSD 4
Prevalence and Impact 9
Prevalence of Communication Disorders 10
Natural History and Long-Term Manifestation of SSD 14
Impact and Outcomes of Childhood SSD 17
Risk and Protective Factors for SSD 26
Evidence-Based Practice 33
Chapter summary 36 / Suggested reading 36 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 1 36
Chapter 2 Classification, Causes, and Co-occurrence 37
Overview 38
Types of SSD in Children 38
Classification Systems of Children with SSD 46
SSD of Known and Unknown Origins 51
Co-occurrence of SSD with Other Types of Communication Impairment 56
Chapter summary 59 / Suggested reading 59 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 2 59
Chapter 3 Articulatory Foundations of Speech 60
Overview 61
Anatomical Structures for Speech Production and Perception 61
Structures involved in speech production 61
Structures Involved in Speech Detection 78
Additional Anatomical Structures That Support Perception and Production of Speech 81
Chapter summary 83 / Suggested reading 83 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 3 83
Chapter 4 Transcription of Speech 84
Overview 85
Transcription of Speech 85
Extensions to the IPA 105
Phonotactics 106
Understanding English Consonants Using Knowledge of Anatomy and Auditory Transcription 108
Chapter summary 125 / Suggested reading 125 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 4 125
Appendix 4-1. Transcription decision-making tree 126
Appendix 4-2. Inventory of consonants for 25 languages and dialects 127
Appendix 4-3. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet 132
Appendix 4-4. Voice quality symbols 133
Chapter 5 Theoretical Foundations of Children’s Speech 134
Overview 135
Phonology–What Is It? 135
Phonological Theories 148
Classic Theories of Phonology 148
Contemporary Theories of Phonology 159
Speech Perception 165
Speech Production 168
Chapter summary 173 / Suggested reading 173 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 5 174
Chapter 6 Children’s Speech Acquisition 175
Overview 176
Part 1: Important Issues When Considering Children’s Speech Acquisition 177
Typical Versus Acceptable Speech Acquisition 178
Theories of Child Development that have Influenced Our Understanding of Speech Acquisition 185
Methodological Issues in Studying Speech Acquisition 187
Part 2: Typical Speech Acquisition for English-Speaking children 191
Speech Acquisition for English-Speaking Infants and Toddlers from Birth to 2 Years 191
Speech Acquisition for English-Speaking Preschoolers from 3 to 5 Years 200
Speech Acquisition for English-Speaking School-Aged Children from 6 years 208
Part 3: Typical Speech Acquisition for All Children 212
Chapter summary 216 / Recommended reading 216 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 6 216
Appendix 6-1. Summary of studies of English-speaking children’s speech acquisition 217
Chapter 7 Assessment Preparation, Purpose, and Types 220
Overview 221
Typical assessments for children with suspected SSD 221
Preparation 221
Referral and Background Information 228
Purposes of Assessment 233
Types of Assessments 236
Chapter summary 242 / Suggested reading 243 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 7 243
Chapter 8 Assessment of Children’s Speech 244
Overview 245
Components of Children’s Speech Assessments 245
Assessment of Intelligibility 245
Assessment of Speech Production: Elements 250
Assessment of Speech Production: Methods 257
Assessment of Oral Structure and Function 265
Assessment of Speech Perception 267
Assessment of Hearing 269
Assessment of Phonological Processing 269
Assessment of Emergent Literacy, Early Literacy, and Conventional Literacy Skills 271
Assessment of Psychosocial Aspects 272
Assessment of Children’s Communicative Participation 273
Language, Voice, and Fluency Assessments 275
Using the ICF-CY Framework to Scaffold Assessment Planning 276
Strategic Assessments Suited to Children with Different Types of SSD 277
Assessments for Children with Suspected Phonological Impairment 278
Differential Diagnosis and Prognostic Statements 283
Chapter summary 283 / Suggested reading 284 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 8 284
Appendix 8-1. Assessment plan 285
Appendix 8-2. Assessment plan for Luke 286
Chapter 9 Analysis of Children’s Speech 288
Overview 289
Traditional Articulation Analysis: Substitution, Omission, Distortion, Addition (SODA) 289
Differentiating Phonemic (Phonological) from Phonetic (Articulation) Errors 292
Independent and Relational Phonological Analyses 292
Children’s Independent and Relational Phonological Analysis (CHIRPA) 295
Speech Measures 319
Instrumental Analyses of Children’s Speech 324
Chapter summary 332 / Suggested reading 332 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 9 333
Appendix 9-1. Children’s Independent and Relational Phonological Analysis (CHIRPA) Template 334
Appendix 9-2. Children’s Independent and Relational Phonological Analysis (CHIRPA) Template:
Worked example for Luke (4;3 years) 337
Chapter 10 Goal Setting 340
Overview 341
What Are Intervention Goals? 341
Identifying Goals for Children with SSD from Different Perspectives 341
Operationally Defined Goals 344
Goal Frameworks and Hierarchies 346
Generalization 348
Approaches to Goal Setting for Children with SSD 350
Goal Setting for Children with Phonological Impairment: The Importance of the Target 350
Goal Setting For Children with Articulation Impairment 363
Goal Setting Considerations for Children with Highly Unintelligible Speech 367
Goal Attack Strategies 368
Chapter summary 369 / Suggested reading 370 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 10 370
Appendix 10-1. Goal identification template 371
Chapter 11 Intervention Principles and Plans 372
Overview 373
What Is Intervention? 373
Principles of Intervention 375
Intervention Plans 392
Progress and Discharge Planning 402
Chapter summary 403 /Suggested reading 403 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 11 404
Appendix 11-1. Speech Sound Disorder Management Plan 405
Appendix 11-2. Speech Sound Disorder Intervention Session Plan 408
Chapter 12 Intervention Procedures and Evaluation 412
Overview 413
Intervention Procedures 413
Evaluating Intervention 422
A Framework for Problem-Solving Slow Progress 429
Chapter summary 432 / Suggested reading 433 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 12 433
Chapter 13 Phonological Intervention Approaches 434
Overview 435
Principles of Phonological Intervention in Practice 436
Minimal Pair Approach 437
Maximal Oppositions and Treatment of the Empty Set 444
Multiple Oppositions 447
Metaphon 450
Cycles 453
Speech Perception Intervention 456
Intervention for Concomitant Phonology and Morphosyntax Difficulties 459
Stimulability Intervention 462
Intervention for Inconsistent Speech Disorder 464
Brief Overview of Other Approaches for Managing
Phonological Impairment in Children 467
Aligning Phonological Target Selection Approaches with
Phonological Intervention Approaches 468
Phonological Intervention for Children Who Are Late Talkers 469
Phonological Intervention for Multilingual Children 472
Addressing the Risk of Literacy Difficulties in Preschoolers with
Phonological Impairment 476
Chapter summary 477 /Suggested reading 478 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 13 478
Appendix 13-1. Core Vocabulary Words that may be relevant for working with children who speak Cantonese 479
Appendix 13-2. Core vocabulary words that may be relevant for working with children who speak Vietnamese 480
Appendix 13-3. Core vocabulary words that may be relevant for working with children who speak Spanish 482
Chapter 14 Articulatory and Motor Speech Intervention Approaches 483
Overview 484
Historical Perspectives on Articulation and Motor Speech Interventions 485
Intervention for Articulation Impairment 486
Intervention for Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) 500
Intervention for Childhood Dysarthria 513
Chapter summary 518 / Suggested reading 518 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 14 519
Chapter 15 Evidence-Based Practice in Practice 520
Overview 521
What Is Evidence-Based Practice (EBP)? 521
Integrating External Published Evidence with the Reality of Clinical Practice and Client Factors,
Values, and Preferences 522
Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Practice 533
Policies Affecting Clinical Practice 533
Associations That Support SLPs’ Clinical Practice and Continuing Education 536
Chapter summary 540 / Suggested reading 540 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 15 540
Chapter 16 Individual Children with Speech Sound Disorders: Case Studies 541
Overview 542
Luke (4;3 years): Phonological Impairment 542
Susie (7;4 years): Articulation Impairment–Lateral Lisp 554
Jarrod (7;0 years): Inconsistent Speech Disorder 555
Michael (4;2 years): Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) 559
Lian (14;2 years): Childhood Dysarthria 563
Chapter summary 569 / Suggested reading 569 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 16 569
Glossary 570
References 583
Index 622

Editorial Reviews

Children’s Speech is not only a comprehensive and authoritative presentation of children’s speech sound disorders (SSDs), written to and for evidence-based (student) clinicians, it is a well-designed course on the topic, complete with PowerPoint lecture notes and in-class activity suggestions, as well as challenging examination questions for each of the book’s 16 chapters. It is packed with useful features, such as first-rate photographs and electro-palatograms of typical and atypical oral structures and their positions during speech, as well as repeated references throughout the book to five children with different types of SSD. Despite the density and depth of information it provides, the book is so clearly written, students and clinicians will want to keep it handy on their shelves for reference long after they complete their first reading.  - Dr. Marc Fey, University of Kansas Medical Center