Circuits and Networks: Analysis, Design, Synthesis

Paperback | December 31, 2010

byM. S. Sukhija, T. K. Nagsarkar

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Circuit and Networks: Analysis, Design, and Synthesis has been designed for undergraduate students of Electrical, Electronics, and Instrumentation Engineering. The book is structured to provide an in-depth knowledge of electrical circuit analysis, design, and synthesis. Beginning with the basic concepts of electrical circuits, the book includes chapters on nodal and mesh analysis, signals and waveforms, reactive circuits, network theorems, graph theory, Laplace transforms, network functions, two-port networks, filters, attenuators, etc. Written in a lucid style,the book comprehensively provides the applications of various tools and techniques for analysis and synthesis of circuits through typical solved examples, numerous figures, and a large number of objective and numerical problems for practice. Towards the end of every chapter, the book also includesrecapitulation of the key formulae introduced in the chapter to provide clarity and highlight their importance.The book also provides appendices on MATLAB and PSPICE to illustrate solving of circuit analysis related problems using these softwares. It also includes a Self Appraisal Test at the end of the book consisting of multiple choice questions and an appraisal grid that will help students appraisethemselves on the concepts learnt through the various chapters in the book.

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From the Publisher

Circuit and Networks: Analysis, Design, and Synthesis has been designed for undergraduate students of Electrical, Electronics, and Instrumentation Engineering. The book is structured to provide an in-depth knowledge of electrical circuit analysis, design, and synthesis. Beginning with the basic concepts of electrical circuits, the book...

Dr M. S. Sukhija, a Ph D. from Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh, has several years of experience of teaching both undergradate and postgraduate students and is the founder principal of Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Bidar, Karnataka. He has served the power cable industry for nearly 10 years and as (Director), Educational C...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:816 pages, 9.84 × 5.91 × 0.01 inPublished:December 31, 2010Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0198061870

ISBN - 13:9780198061878

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Table of Contents

Preface1. Elementary circuit concepts1.1 Preamble1.2 Conductors, Semi-conductors and insulating materials1.3 Electric charge and current1.4 Force and work1.5 Electric potential, potential difference and electromotive force1.6 Electric power and energy1.7 Circuit elements1.7.1Resistors1.7.2 Inductors1.7.3 Capacitors1.8 Energy sources1.8.1 Ideal independent sources1.8.1.1 Independent voltage source1.8.1.2 Independent current source1.8.2 Dependent or controlled sources1.8.2.1Voltage controlled voltage sources (VCVS)1.8.2.2 Voltage controlled current sources (VCCS)1.8.2.3 Current controlled current sources (CCCS)1.8.2.3 Current controlled voltage sources (CCVS)1.8.3 Practical sources1.8.4 Source transformation1.9 Kirchhoff's Laws1.9.1 Kirchhoff's current law (KCL)1.9.2 Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL)1.10 Connection of Circuit Elements1.10.1 Series connection1.10.1.1 Resistors connected in series1.10.1.2 Inductors connected in series1.10.1.3 Capacitors connected in series1.10.2 Parallel connections1.10.2.1 Resistors in parallel1.10.2.2 Inductors in parallel1.10.2.3 Capacitors in parallel1.10.3 Series parallel circuits1.11 Star (Y)-Delta (D) Connections and their TransformationsReviewMultiple Choice Objective QuestionsUnsolved ProblemsAnswers to objective questions2. Nodal and mesh analysis2.1 Preamble2.2 Nodal analysis2.2.1 Nodal analysis with voltage sources2.2.2 Nodal analysis with dependent sources2.2.3 The Supernode2.3 Mesh analysis2.3.1 Mesh analysis with current sources2.3.2 Mesh analysis with dependent sources2.3.3 Supermesh2.4 Comparison of Node-voltage and Mesh-current methodsReviewMultiple Choice Objective QuestionsUnsolved ProblemsAnswers to objective questions3. Signals and waveform3.1 Preamble3.2 Classification3.3 Periodic functions3.4 Definitions3.5 Sinusoidal functions3.5.1 Addition of periodic functions3.6 Non-periodic functions3.6.1 Unit step function3.6.1.1 Addition of step functions3.6.1.2 Multiplication by a unit-step function3.6.2 Pulse or Gate function3.6.3 Straight line functions3.6.4 Ramp function3.6.4.1 Addition of ramp functions3.6.5 General t n functions3.6.6 Impulse Function3.6.6.1 Sifting or sampling property of impulse function3.6.6.2 Relationship between step and impulse functions3.6.7 Exponential function3.6.8 Damped sinusoidal function3.7 Random Functions3.8 Waveform SynthesisReviewMultiple Choice Objective QuestionsUnsolved ProblemsAnswers to objective questions4. Fundamentals of reactive circuits4.1 Preamble4.2 Circuit Responses4.3 Response of source free circuits4.3.1 Series RL circuit4.3.2 Series RC circuit4.3.3 Significance of time constant4.3.4 Natural frequency4.3.5 Series RLC circuit4.3.6 Parallel RLC circuit4.3.7 LC circuit4.4 Forced Response4.4.1 Step function4.4.1.1 Response of an inductor4.4.1.2 Response of a capacitor4.4.1.3 Response of a series RL circuit4.4.1.4 Response of a series RC circuit4.4.1.5 Response of a series RLC circuit4.4.2 Pulse function4.4.3 Impulse function4.4.3.1 Response of an inductor4.4.3.2 Response of a capacitor4.4.3.3 Response of RL series circuit4.4.3.4 Response of RC parallel circuit4.4.3.5 Response of RLC circuitsReviewMultiple Choice Objective QuestionsUnsolved ProblemsAnswers to objective question5. Sinusoidal steady state analysis5.1 Preamble5.2 Sinusoidal source5.3 Phasor representation of simusoidal functions5.3.1 Inverse phasor transformation5.3.2 Phasor algebra5.3.3 The j operator5.4 Steady-state Response of Circuits to Sinusoidal Functions5.4.1 Steady-state response with single basic network element5.4.1.1 Resistor5.4.1.2 Inductor5.4.1.3 Capacitor5.4.2 Impedance5.4.3 Series and parallel combination of impedances5.4.4 Series and parallel combination of admittances5.4.5 Definition of Kirchhoff's Laws in the Frequency Domain5.4.6 Voltage divider circuit in the frequency domain5.4.7 Current divider circuit in the frequency domain5.5 Resonance in AC circuits5.5.1 Resonance in series circuit5.5.1.1 Q factor5.5.1.2 Bandwidth5.5.2Resonance in parallel circuit5.5.2.1 Practical LC parallel circuit5.5.2.2 Resonance by varying L and C5.6 Star (Y)-Delta (?) Connections5.6.1 Delta (?) to Star (Y) transformation5.6.2 Star (Y) to Delta (?) transformation5.7 Nodal and Mesh analysis5.7.1 Node voltage analysis5.7.2 Mesh current analysis5.8 Sudden Application of Sinusoidal FunctionReviewMultiple Choice Objective QuestionsUnsolved ProblemsAnswers to objective question6. Network theorems6.1 Preamble6.2 Superposition principle6.2.1 Superposition theorem6.2.2 Application of Superposition to RL and RC circuits6.2.3 Application of Superposition to AC circuits6.3 Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits6.3.1 Thevenin's theorem for circuits containing independent sources6.3.3 Norton's theorem for circuits containing independent sources6.3.4 Thevenin and Norton theorems for circuits containing independent and dependent sources6.3.5 Thevenin and Norton theorems for circuits containing no independent sources6.3.6 Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits in the frequency domain6.4 Maximum power transfer theorem6.4.1 Maximum power transfer in AC circuits6.5 Reciprocity theorem6.6 Compensation theorem6.7 Tellegen's theorem6.8 Millman's theoremReviewMultiple Choice Objective QuestionsUnsolved ProblemsAnswers to objective question7. Alternating Current Power Circuit Analysis7.1 Preamble7.2 AC power7.2.1 Instantaneous power7.2.2 Average power7.2.3 Active and reactive powers7.2.3.1 Power in a purely resistive circuit7.2.3.2 Power in a purely inductive circuit7.2.3.3 Power in a purely resistive circuit7.4 Volt-ampere and Complex Power7.5 Alternate Equations for Complex Power Computations7.6 Sign convention for complex power7.7 Power factor and power factor angle7.7.1 Power factor of practical networks7.7.2 Significance of power factor7.7.3 Power factor improvementReviewMultiple Choice Objective QuestionsUnsolved ProblemsAnswers to objective question8. Balanced three-phase circuits8.1 Preamble8.2 Poly-phase circuits8.3 Single-phase systems and three-phase systems -a comparison8.4 Three-phase systems8.4.1 Generation of Three-Phase Voltages8.4.2 Phasor representation of three phase voltages8.4.3 Phase sequence of the induced three phase voltages8.4.4 Representation of a three-phase generator8.5 Different types of three phase connections8.5.1 Six wire connection8.5.2 Star or wye (Y) connection8.5.3 Delta connection8.6 Three-phase supply8.6.1 Three-phase Y connected supply: voltages and currents8.6.2 Three-phase connected supply: voltages and currents8.6.3 Specification of three-phase supply8.7 Analysis of three-phase circuits8.7.1 Y-connected supply and Y-connected balanced load8.7.2 Analysis of Y-connected source and ?-connected balanced load8.7.3 Other types of circuit configurations8.8 Three Phase Unbalanced Load Circuits8.9 Power in Three Phase Circuits8.9.1 Instantaneous power8.10 Measurement of Three-Phase Power8.10.1 One wattmeter method8.10.2 Two wattmeter method8.10.2.1 Measurement of unbalanced three phase load8.10.2.2 Measurement of balanced three phase load8.11 Measurement of reactive powerReviewMultiple Choice Objective QuestionsUnsolved ProblemsAnswers to objective question9. Mutually coupled circuits and their analysis9.1 Preamble9.2 Self inductance9.3 Mutual inductance9.3.1 Coefficient of coupling9.4 Analysis of coupled circuit9.4.1 Polarities of coupled coils9.4.2 Natural current9.4.3 Dot convention9.5 Equivalent Circuit of Mutually Coupled Coils9.6 Energy in Two Linearly Coupled Coils9.6.1 Maximum value of M9.7 Coupled Circuit as a Transformer9.7.1 Linear Transformer simulation9.7.2 Reflected impedance9.8 Ideal Transformer Simulation9.8.1 Computation of voltage and current transformation ratios9.8.2 Computation of reflected impedance9.8.3 Voltage and current relationships in the time domainReviewMultiple Choice Objective QuestionsUnsolved ProblemsAnswers to objective question10. Fundamentals of Graph Theory10.1 Preamble10.2 Graph Vocabulary10.2.1 Graph of a linear circuit10.2.2 Tree and cotree10.2.3 Loops and basic loops10.2.4 Co-relation between nodes, branches and links10.2.5 Cut-sets and basic cut-sets10.3 Matrix Representation of Graphs10.3.1 Element node incidence matrix10.3.2 Bus incidence matrix10.3.3 Bus path incidence matrix10.3.4 Basic cut-set incidence matrix10.3.5 Enhanced cut-set incidence matrix10.3.6 Basic loops incidence matrix10.3.7 Enhanced loops incidence matrix10.4 Formulation of Network Response Equations Using Incidence Matrices10.4.1 Elementary or primitive network10.4.2 Bus impedance and bus admittance matrices10.4.3 Branch impedance and branch admittance matrices10.4.4 Loop impedance and loop admittance matrices10.5 Duality in Networks10.5.1 Principle of duality10.5.2 Relationship between circuit elements and constraint equations of dual networks10.5.3 Geometrical method to draw the dual of a networkReviewMultiple Choice Objective QuestionsUnsolved ProblemsAnswers to objective question11. Analysis of circuits by Laplace Transforms11.1Preamble11.2 Definition of Laplace transform11.3 Definition of Inverse Laplace transform11.4 Laplace Transforms of common forcing functions11.4.1 Unit step function11.4.2 Ramp function11.4.3 Impulse function11.4.4 Decaying exponential function11.4.5 Sinusoidal function11.5 Properties of Laplace transforms11.5.1 Linearity11.5.2 Frequency shift11.5.3 Time scaling11.5.4 Time shift11.5.4.1 Pulse or gate function11.5.4.2 Periodic function11.5.5 Time differentiation11.5.6 Time integration11.5.7 Complex frequency differentiation11.5.8 Complex frequency integration11.6 Initial and Final Value Theorems11.6.1 Initial value theorem11.6.2 Final value theorem11.7 Partial Fractions11.7.1 Simple poles11.7.2 Repeated poles11.7.3 Complex poles11.8 The Convolution Integral11.9 Application of Laplace Transform Techniques to Circuit Analysis11.9.1 Circuit parameters in the s-domain11.9.2 Analysis of simple reactive circuits in the s-domain11.9.3 Response of RL circuits11.9.3.1 Step function11.9.3.2 Impulse function11.9.3.3 Pulse function11.9.3.4 Sinusoidal function11.9.4 Response of RC circuits11.9.4.1 Step function11.9.4.2 Impulse function11.9.4.3 Pulse function11.9.4.4 Sinusoidal function11.9.5 Response of RLC circuits11.9.5.1 Step function11.9.5.2 Impulse function11.9.5.3 Pulse function11.9.5.4 Sinusoidal function11.9.5.5 Damped exponential11.9.6 Nodal and mesh analysis in the s-domain11.9.7 Additional circuit analysis techniquesReviewMultiple Choice Objective QuestionsUnsolved ProblemsAnswers to objective question12. Impedance and admittance functions12.1 Preamble12.2 Conceptualisation of Complex frequency12.3 Complex frequency plane12.4 Dimensions of complex frequency12.5 Impedance and Admittance Functions12.5.1 Series combination12.5.2 Parallel combination12.5.3 Series parallel combinationReviewMultiple Choice Objective QuestionsUnsolved ProblemsAnswers to objective question13. Network functions13.1 Preamble!3.2 Terminals and Ports13.2.1 One-port networks!3.2.2 Two-port networks13.3 Network Functions13.3.1 Driving point functions13.3.2 Transfer functions13.4 Computation of Network Functions13.4.1 Ladder networks13.4.2 Non-ladder or general networks13.5 Features of Network Functions13.5.1 Poles and zeroes13.5.2 Significance of poles-zeroes in network functions13.6 Restrictions on Location of Poles and Zeroes of Network Functions13.6.1 Restrictions on location of poles and zeroes in driving point immittances13.6.2 Restrictions on location of poles and zeroes in transfer functions13.7 Response of a Circuit in the Time Domain from Pole and Zero Plots13.8 Amplitude and Phase Response from Pole Zero Plot13.8.1 Determination of magnitudes and phases of residues graphically13.9 Performance of Active Networks13.10 Routh-Hurwitz Stability Criterion13.10.1 Application of the Routh-Hurwitz criterionReviewMultiple Choice Objective QuestionsUnsolved ProblemsAnswers to objective question14. Two-port networks14.1Preamble14.2 Restrictions on Simulation of Two Port Networks14.3 Parameters of Two Port Networks14.3.1 Open circuit impedance parameters14.3.2 Short circuit admittance parameters14.3.3 Transmission line parameters14.3.4 Inverse transmission line parameters14.3.5 The hybrid or h parameters14.3.6 The inverse hybrid or g parameters14.4 Co-relation between Two Port Parameters14.4.1 Conversion of y to z parameters14.4.2 Conversion of T to h parameters14.4.3 Conversion of h to y parameters14.5 Two Port Reciprocal and Symmetric Networks14.5.1 Interchange of ideal voltage source14.5.2 Interchange of ideal current source14.5.3 Interchange of ideal current and voltage sources14.5.4 Symmetric networks14.6 Analysis of Terminated Two Port Networks14.6.1 y parameters of a terminated two port network14.6.2 Other parameters of a terminated two port network14.7 Interconnection of Two Port Networks14.7.1 Restrictions on inter-connection of two port networks14.7.2 Series connection14.7.3 Parallel connection14.7.4 Cascade connection14.7.5 Other types of connection14.8 Co-relation between the Parameters and T and Pie Representations14.8.1 T networks14.8.2 Pie networks14.9 Image Impedance14.9.1 Relation to transmission line parametersReviewMultiple Choice Objective QuestionsUnsolved ProblemsAnswers to objective question15. Analysis of waveforms by Fourier technique15.1 Preamble15.2 Synopsis of Fourier Series Analysis15.2.1 Harmonics15.2.2 Dirichlet's conditions15.3 Computation of the Coefficients of the Fourier Series15.3.1 Coefficients in trigonometric form15.3.2 Coefficients in exponential form15.4 Waveform Symmetry and Fourier Coefficients15.4.1 Even function symmetry15.4.2 Odd function symmetry15.4.3 Half wave symmetry15.4.4 Quarter wave symmetry15.4.5 Additional characteristics of Fourier series functions15.5 Line Spectra15.6 Synthesis of Waveforms15.7 Effective Values and Power Computations of Periodic Functions15.7.1 Effective values15.7.2 Power computations15.8 The Fourier Transform15.8.1 Definition of the Fourier transform15.8.2 A properties of the Fourier transform15.8.2.1 Operational properties15.8.2.2 Functional transforms15.8.3 Parseval's theoremReviewMultiple Choice Objective QuestionsUnsolved ProblemsAnswers to objective question Chapter 1616. Filters and attenuator circuits16.1 Preamble16.2 Definitions16.3 Classification of filters16.3.1 Classification based on frequency characteristics16.3.2 Classification based on relation between the arm impedances16.4 Filter networks16.5 Concept of working of LP and HP filters16.6 Analysis of filter networks16.6.1 T network16.6.2 Pi network16.7 Categorisation of Pass Band and Stop Band16.8 Characteristic Impedance in the Pass Band and Stop Band16.8.1 Symmetric T network16.8.2 Symmetric Pi network16.8.3 Cut off frequency16.9 Constant K - Low Pass (LP) Filter16.10 Constant K - High Pass (HP) Filter16.11 Constant K - Band Pass (BP) Filter16.12 Constant K - Band Elimination (BE) Filter16.13 m - Derived Filters16.13.2 m - Derived HP filter16.14 Attenuator16.15 Classification of Attenuators16.15.1 T type attenuator16.15.2 Pi Type attenuator16.15.3 Lattice Type attenuator16.15.4 Bridged T Type attenuator16.15.5 L Type attenuator16.15.6 Ladder Type attenuator16.15.7 Balanced attenuator16.16 Insertion LossReviewMultiple Choice Objective QuestionsUnsolved ProblemsAnswers to objective question17. Network synthesis and realizability17.1 Preamble17.2 Elements of Realizability Theory17.2.1 Causality17.2.2 Stability17.3 Hurwitz polynomials17.3.1 Properties of Hurwitz polynomial17.4 Methodology for Obtaining Continued Fraction Expansion of D(s)17.5 Positive real functions17.5.1 Conditions for a function to be positive real17.5.2 Basic passive impedances as PRF17.5.3 Driving point immittances of passive networks as PRF17.6 Characteristics of PRF17.6.1 Necessary and sufficient (NS) conditions for F(s) to be PR17.6.2 Testing F(s) for positive realness17.6.3 Series and parallel connections of driving point immittances17.7 Methodology for Simple Network Synthesis17.7.1 Removal of a pole at infinity17.7.2 Removal of a pole at the origin17.7.3 Removal of imaginary (conjugate) poles17.7.4 Removal of a constant17.8 Synthesis of Two Elements Type One Port Networks17.8.1 L-C networks17.8.1.1 Properties of L-C functions17.8.1.2 Synthesis by Foster's methods17.8.1.3 Synthesis by Cauer's methods17.8.2 R-C Impedance and R-L Admittance Networks17.8.2.1Properties of ZR-C (s) and YR-L (s) functions17.8.2.2 Synthesis of ZR-C (s) and YR-L (s) functions17.8.3 R-L Impedance and R-C Admittance Networks17.8.3.1Properties of ZR-L (s) and YR-C (s) functions17.8.3.2 Synthesis of ZR-L (s) and YR-C (s) functionsReviewMultiple Choice Objective QuestionsUnsolved ProblemsAnswers to objective questionAppendix A - MATLABAppendix B - PSPICEAppendix C - AnswersAppendix D - ICTBibliography