This book is a comparative analysis of residential, social, economic, and political rights for aliens. The book analyzes the concepts of nationality and citizenship. Some foreigners are increasingly able to enjoy traditional citizenship rights though residential and/or regional citizenship. There is no previous research for Japan in addition to the UK, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and America. Also, it is fruitful to construct the bridge among several disciplines such as jurisprudence, political science, and sociology.