Classifying Science: Phenomena, Data, Theory, Method, Practice by Rick SzostakClassifying Science: Phenomena, Data, Theory, Method, Practice by Rick Szostak

Classifying Science: Phenomena, Data, Theory, Method, Practice

byRick Szostak

Paperback | December 30, 2010

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Classification is the essential first step in science. The study of science, as well as the practice of science, will thus benefit from a detailed classification of different types of science. In this book, science - defined broadly to include the social sciences and humanities - is first unpacked into its constituent elements: the phenomena studied, the data used, the theories employed, the methods applied, and the practices of scientists. These five elements are then classified in turn. Notably, the classifications of both theory types and methods allow the key strengths and weaknesses of different theories and methods to be readily discerned and compared. Connections across classifications are explored: should certain theories or phenomena be investigated only with certain methods? What is the proper function and form of scientific paradigms? Are certain common errors and biases in scientific practice associated with particular phenomena, data, theories, or methods? The classifications point to several ways of improving both specialized and interdisciplinary research and teaching, and especially of enhancing communication across communities of scholars. The classifications also support a superior system of document classification that would allow searches by theory and method used as well as causal links investigated.
Title:Classifying Science: Phenomena, Data, Theory, Method, PracticeFormat:PaperbackDimensions:301 pagesPublished:December 30, 2010Publisher:Springer NetherlandsLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9048167906

ISBN - 13:9789048167906


Table of Contents

List of Tables viiPreface ixChapter 1: Classifying Science 11.1. A Simple Classificatory Guideline 31.2. The First "Cut" (and Plan of Work) 51.3. Some Preliminaries 9Chapter 2: Classifying Phenomena and Data 232.1. Classifying Phenomena 232.2. Classifying Data 45 Chapter 3: Classifying Theory 513.1. Typology of Theory 553.2. What Is a Theory? 743.3. Evaluating Theories 783.4. Types of Theory and the Five Typesof Causation 803.5. Classifying Individual Theories 823.6. Advantages of a Typology of Theory 95Chapter 4: Classifying Method 994.1. Classifying Methods 1014.2. Typology of Strengths and Weaknessesof Methods 1034.3. Qualitative Versus Quantitative AnalysisRevisited 1094.4. Evaluating Methods 1134.5. Classifying Particular Methods WithinThe Typology 1164.6. Advantages of a Typology of Methods 144 Chapter 5: Classifying Practice 1555.1. Errors and Biases in Science 1585.2. Typology of (Critiques of) ScientificPractice 1615.3. Utilizing This Classification 1925.4. The Five Types of Ethical Analysis 194Chapter 6: Drawing Connections AcrossThese Classifications 1996.1. Theory and Method 1996.2. Theory (Method) and Phenomena (Data) 2036.3. Better Paradigms 2086.4. Critiques of Scientific Practice: Are TheyCorrelated with Other Classifications? 213Chapter 7: Classifying Scientific Documents 2177.1. Faceted or Enumerative? 2197.2. Classifying By Phenomena Studied 2217.3. Classifying By Theory Used 2257.4. Classifying By Method Used 2277.5 Links Among Subjects 2287.6. Type of Work, Language, and More 2297.7. Critiques of Scientific Practice 2307.8. Classifying Philosophy 2317.9. Evaluating the System 232Chapter 8: Concluding Remarks 2398.1. The Classifications 2398.2. Advantages of These Various Classifications 2418.3. Drawing Connections Across Classifications 2458.4. Golden Mean Arguments 2478.5. Why Should Science Be Believed? 2498.6. How Can Science Be Improved? 2508.7. How Should Science Be Taught? 259References 269Index 279

Editorial Reviews

From the reviews:"Szostak proffers . an organized, internally consistent, method in the context of a Generic Philosophy of Science & Methodology - applicable in . any phase of problem-solving. The author utilizes a unique 'key deductive guideline throughout the book which is grounded in one of the simplest organizing principles possible: the 5W questions . Who, What, Where, When, and Why - are asked'. . Do get a copy of this excellent book!" (Karl H. Wolf, International Journal of General Systems, Vol. 35 (4), 2006)"The Earth sciences encompass many disciplines, including Information Science and Knowledge Management. Here is Volume seven - to be cognitively cherished . . Science's definition has been much broadened, and since all disciplines use classifications, there is no limit: everyone engaged in problem solving ought to get Szostak's book: including all information technologist, librarians, basic and applied researchers, educationalists/teachers, as well as, post-graduates and motivated secondary school students. . This new book will definitely open your intellectual vision. Get it!" (Karl Wolf, The Australian Geologist Newsletter, Vol. 139, 2006)